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ministers and the union heads, are, with notable exceptions, "patriotic."

The Australian labor movement has been in existence many years, although it became strong and influential only in the last decade. Patterned after the British trade unions, it was, in the first 20 years of its existence, on the whole conservative. Only when the capitalists undertook to persecute labor unionists, and a political movement was organized, a more vigorous and more influential labor union movement set in, which soon succeeded in securing important reforms.

The membership of the trade unions has increased as follows: 1894 55,348 1909

273,464 1896 55,566 1910

302,119 1900 84,231 1911

364,732 1906 175,529 1912

433,224 1907 194,602 1913

497,925 1908 240,475 1914

523,271 The headquarters of the different political and economic organizations of Australia are:

New South Wales: E. J. Kavanagh, Labor Party of N. S. W., Trades and Industrial Hall, Goulburn St., Sydney. Political Labor League: P. Evans, MacDonell House, Sydney.

Queensland: Labor Party: Trades Hall, Brisbane.

South Australia: T. B. Merry, United Trades and Labor Council, Grote St., Adelaide.

Western Australia: A. McCallum, Trades Hall, Beaufort St., Perth.

Victoria: Trades Hall, Carlton, Melbourne.

Socialist Labor Party: Secretary J. O. Moroney, 16 George St., West Sydney.

Socialist Party of Victoria: Office Socialist Hall, 283 Elizabeth St., Melbourne.

West Australian Socialist Party: 50 Nelson Crescent East Perth.

NEW ZEALAND. New Zealand is a self-governing Dominion under British Crown. The Government is vested in a Governor, representing the King, acting by and with the advice of ministers responsible to Parliament, of which they must be members. Parliament consis of two Housez: a Legislative Council, nominated by the Governor, and a House of Representatives elected on a thoroughly democratic one-adult-one-vote franchise.

New Zealand is reputed to be the most advanced country in the world, as "A Social Laboratory," as the land of Socialisme Sans Phrase, but there was not till about 1912 any Socialist movement strictly speaking. The labor legislation of which New Zealand has been the pioneer has not been the result of an organised Labor movement. The late Richard Seddon, who became Premier in 1893, had begun life as a miner and till his death thirteen years later was kept in power by the workers, who voted as Liberals and Radicals. The chief results of the Seddon régime were the establishment of compulsory conciliation and arbitration for the settlement of labor disputes, the taxation of land values, the break-up of big estates and the consequent growth of the class of small farmers, the grant of women's suffrage, old age pensions, and the extension of the State's economic functions, particularly in the direction of public ownership.

Many strikes and attempts by the workers to defy the awards of the Arbitration courts and the beginnings of Labor, Socialist, and even Syndicalist groups were the first signs that the workers were becoming class-conscious and preparing for the class-struggle. Pastoral and agricultural industries, however, are the chief forms of wealth production; manufactures occupy a secondary position.

In 1912, under the guidance of W. T. Mills, a member of the Socialist Party of America, the United Labor Party was formed, consisting of affiliated trades-councils and Labor Party branches and unions. Its organization and policy. were greatly similar to those of British Labor Party. But outside the new party were the Federation of Labor, with syndicalist tendencies, and the Social Democratic Party. In July, 1913, a congress of all three bodies was held to reorganize the movement on more advanced lines. The result was the formation of the United Federation of Labor for industrial purposes and of the Social Democratic Party for political purposes. The objective of the Federation of Labor is “to bring about a co-operative commonwealth based upon industrial democracy.” At the general election in December, 1914 the votes obtained by the three parties were: Tories

226,795 Liberals

204,294 Labor-Socialist

51,088 The Labor-Socialist vote was made up of the following: Social Democratic Party

21,457 Social Democratic Party and Dunndin Trades and Labor Council

7,677 Wellington Labor Representation Committee (LaborLiberal vote) ...

10,167 Other Labor candidates

10,609 Independent Labor candidates

1,178

Social Democratic and Labor Total

51,088

The growth of trade unionism is shown in the following table:

of each year

At December 31

No. of No. of

unions members 1905

261 29,869 1906

274 34,978 1907

310 45,614 1908

325 49,347 1909

308 54,519 1910

308 57,091 1911

307 55,629 1912

322 60,622 1913

372 71,544 1914

403 73,991 At a joint conference of the United Federation of Labor, the Social Democratic Party and the Labor Representation Committee of New Zealand, held in June, 1916, the New Zealand Labor Party was founded. The program of the new party states as its final aim: "The socialization of the means of production, distribution and exchange."

THE YOUNG PEOPLE'S INTERNATIONAL:

In every country where the Socialist movement has taken a firm foothold young people's organizations have sprung up. Some of the organizations are still weak and ineffectual, others have gained an important position in the labor movement. The young people's movement is usually strong where there is a strong general party movement, i. e., where the Party itself has the strength and the time to help the younger generation in their work. The strongest movements are therefore in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries. Before the war the International Bureau of the Young Socialist Movement was in Vienna, the head being Dannenberg, one of the clearest, most revolutionary men of the Austrian movement. Since 1913 the Young People's International has had its headquarters in Zurich, with Muenzenberg as secretary. It is publishing a paper Youth-International (Jugend-Internationale), which

appears once in three months, and whose special task is the re-establishment of international relations. On April 4, 5 and 6, 1915, an international Conference was held in Berne, Switzerland, with delegates from Denmark, Sweden, Italy, Russia, Poland, Holland, Bulgaria, Switzerland and Germany. The young

people of Europe are today among the staunchest supporters of those socialist groups which are demanding the resumption of the International relations between the Socialist movements of the belligerent nations.

The Italian Young People numbered 10,000 members before the war. They have suffered perhaps the most heavily for their solidarity. Even before Italy entered the war numerous young comrades were imprisoned because they participated in anti-war demonstrations. More than one has paid with his blood for his unshaken loyalty to the international movement. After the war broke out arrests for socialist peace propaganda became still more frequent. Two thousand of the 10,000 members were called to arms. The organ of the Italian movement, L'Avanguardia, is subject to the severest kind of censorship. But in spite of everything, young socialists maintain their faith in the final victory of the proletarian International.

The same is true of A tria where in recent years one of the soundest and strongest young people's organizations has developed. Before the war, the Austrian Young People's organ Der Jugendliche Arbeiter (The Young Worker) had a circulation of 26,500 for a membership of 14.014. Of the latter 2,335 have been called to the colors. This loss has already been partly made good by 2,744 new members, so that to-day the membership of the Austrian organization is bigger than before the war. The Jugendliche Arbeiter wages an unceasing battle against war, in spite of the censors to suppress whatever may be against the interests of the Austrian war lords.

In Germany the Young People's movement, even before the war, had many difficulties to overcome, because political activity or affiliations for a young man under 21 years of age are strictly forbidden. The general party organizations therefore completely control the business of the Young Socialist movement. Those comrades who to-day are suffering prison terms in Germany for their peace propaganda are practically all former members of the Young People's movement. The German Y. P. organ Die Arbeiter-Jugend (The Workmen's Youth) had, before the war, a circulation of more than 80,000. In 297 towns, young people's libraries have been collected, 5,500 lectures (1913), 1,859 concert and theatre performances, and other entertainments arranged with carefully selected programs, and 6,300 excursions and visits to places of educational interest (as museums, etc.) were arranged. • In 1913, the party gave $67,000 for these purposes.

In England there were no Young People's organizations before the war, but the former pupils of the Socialist Sunday Schools showed that they knew how to fight for peace.

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About 500 of them were imprisoned and tortured because they refused absolutely to do anything that could be construed as helping in the war.

In France a few beginnings had been made before the war and here, too, the young people were among the few who resisted the chauvinistic spirit of the time.

In Belgium, where there were a splendid Socialist Young People's organization before the war, all soc ist propaganda has become impossible through the German occupation of the whole country.

In Holland there are two Young Socialist movements just as there are two Party organizations. This makes efficient work exceedingly difficult. The group with its organ The Young Socialist, has about 300, the group following the S. D. L. P. with its organ Het Young Volk, about 1,500 members.

In Bulgaria the Young People have 400 members; there are also beginnings of a movement in Greece, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Argentine and the United States. (In regard to the last named see the section on the Socialist movement in the United States.)

The chief centres of the Socialist Young People's movement, apart from the new International Bureau in Switzerland are the three Scandinavian nations, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Norway has 6,200 members in 120 sections, constituting a most important factor in the fight against militarism and opportunism. Denmark has 7,300 members in 82 sections, among them 1,300 girls and 2,000 apprentices under 18 years. As soon as the members reach their twentyfirst year they are transferred to the Party. Sweden's Young People number more than 8,400 members and are also in the forefront of the fight against nationalism and militarism. The splendid work of our young Finnish comrades is being brutally wiped out by the Russian government. But just as soon as one organization is suppressed, the Social Democratic Party starts a new one. How strong and forceful the Young People's movement in the Scandinavian countries is, can be seen from the fact, that in Norway and Sweden laws have been passed to stop the anti-militarist propaganda of the Socialist Young People's organizations. But the young people have proved in the past that prison walls cannot stop them from expressing their opinions, and will hardly be able to do so in the future.

To sustain the International relations between the young people of the various countries, an international organ has been established. On September 25, 1916, the young people of all nations will conduct peace demonstrations throughout the world.

The International Secretary is A. Muenzenberg, Werdstr. 40, Zurich, Switzerland.

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