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relationship prevails. The Y. P. S. L. members assist in propaganda and educational work, raise funds, and in general do a great deal to raise the standard of work and comradeship among even the older comrades. Some of our hard workers and able officers owe much of their present efficiency to the training received in the young socialist movement, and as time goes on this tendency will be more and more marked.

Through the national organization we are affiliated with the “Internationale Verbindung Sozialistischer Jugendorganizationen," of which Wilhelm Munzenberg, of Zurich, Switzerland, is the present International Secretary. It is to be said to the credit of the young socialists of Europe that they have shown as fine an anti-militarist spirit as have any European socialists in either warring or neutral countries. Two international conferences, one in April, 1915, the other in February, 1916, were held for the purpose of keeping intact the international affiliations.

The work of the Y. P. S. L. may be said to fall chiefly under two heads, Educational and Social. Studv classes, reading circles. lectures, etc., make up the first, under which head comes also the discipline and training offered by the every-day routine of conducting a great national movement. Partv members coming from the ranks of the Y. P. S. L. are certainly the better equipped for their apprenticeship in the young movement. On the social field almost every interest vital to the hearts and spirits of the young is catered to. Athletics, entertainments, and all forms of social intercourse are provided for, thus effecting the development of a spirit of comradeship that enhances every member's value to the movement in general.

Prospects for the League's further progress are unlimited. Older socialists are taking an ever increasing interest in the young movement, and as the great need and value of the Y. P. S. L. is being recognized, its boundaries are being pushed further and further forward. In the stirring times that are sure to follow the cessation of the world war the youth of the world, organized as it is today but on a vastly greater scale, is sure to play an important part in reconstructing the International on a more stable footing than that so ruthlessly swept away by the events of August, 1914.

In the Y. P. S. L. is combined the idealism of youth and the bed-rock practicability of good organization methods. The result will mean a step forward in the movement of both the old and the young socialists. Every step in the progress of the Young People's Socialist League is a gain for the International that is to bę.

The Intercollegiate Socialist Society.
(Report by Harry W. Laidler, Organizing Secretary.)

The Intercollegiate Socialist Society was organized September 12, 1905, in New York City, for the purpose of promoting an intelligent interest in Socialism among college men and women. The following call for the organization was made by several publicists, including Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Jack London, Oscar Lovell Triggs, B. O. Flower, Clarence Darrow, J. G. Phelps Stokes, Wm. English Walling and Leonard D. Abbott:

In the opinion of the undersigned the recent remarkable increase in the Socialist vote in America should serve as an indication to the educated men and women in the country, that Socialism is a thing con. cerning which it is no longer wise to be indifferent.

“The undersigned, regarding its aims and fundamental principles with sympathy, and believing that in them will ultimately be found the remedy for many far-reaching, economic evils, propose organizing an association, to be known as the Intercollegiate Socialist Society, for the purpose of promoting an intelligent interest in Socialism among college men, graduate and undergraduate, through the formation of study clubs in the colleges and universities, and the encouraging of all legitimate endeavors to awaken an interest in Socialism among the educated men and women of the country.”

Jack London was elected first president, Upton Sinclair, 1st vice-president; J. G. Phelps Stokes, 2nd vice-president; Owen R. Lovejoy, treasurer; Miss M. R. Holbrook, secretary, and Morris Hillquit, Róbert Hunter, Geo. H. Strobell, Mrs. Darwin J. Meserole, Geo. Willis Cooke and Harry W. Laidler, additional members of the Executive Committee. George R. Kirkpatrick was organizer for more than two years, and Fred. F. Merrick also served in that capacity for a few months.

The society is primarily a study, not a political propagandist organization. By the Spring of 1916 it had established Chapters for the study of Socialism in about 70 colleges and universities East and West, and Alumni Chapters in 17 centers of population. The undergraduate organizations hold study meetings on various phases of Socialism and public lectures. In 1915-16, John Spargo, Rose Pastor Stokes and Harry W. Laidler spoke in 120 colleges before over 30,000 students and 12,000 others. They addressed some 80 economics and other classes and spoke before over a score of entire college bodies.

The Society issues a quarterly magazine (250 a year) and publishes a number of research pamphlets in connection with this periodical, study courses, book lists, etc. It holds annual conventions during the Christmas holidays in New York City, and summer conferences. The summer conference of 1916 will be held at Sherwood Forest; near Baltimore, from September 18th to September 25th. The headquarters of the Society are at 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The officers of the Society for the year 1916-17 are as follows:

President, J. G. Phelps Stokes; Treasurer, Mary R. Sanford; Secretary, Leroy Scott; Organizing Secretary, Harry W. Laidler.

Undergraduate Chapters are located in the following institutions:

Albion, Amherst, Barnard, Bates, Beloit, Berkeley Divinity, Brown, California, Carnegie Inst. Technology, Chicago, Cincinnati, City College, (N. Y.), Clark, Colorado, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, East Tennessee Normal, Emory and Henry, George Washington, Grinneli, Hamline, Har. vard, Howard, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Iowa State, John Marshall Law, Johns Hopkins, Kansas Agricultural, La Crosse Normal, Los Angeles Osteopathic, Mass. Inst. Technology, Miami, Michigan, Middle Tenn. Normal, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, New York Dental, New York Law, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oberlin, Ohio State, Ohio Wesleyan, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Princeton, Radcliffe, Randolph Macon, Rich mond, Rutgers, Simmons, Simpson, South Carolina, Springfield, Syracuse, Temple, Trinity, Union Theological, Utah, Valparaiso, Vassar, Virginia, Washington (Wash.), Washington-Jefferson, Washington and Lee, Wisconsin, Yale.

Alumni Chapters exist in Buffalo, Central California, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles, New York, Portland, Schenectady, Seattle, St. Louis, Springfield, Washington, Wilkes-Barre.

11. THE CHRISTIAN SOCIALISTS. The Christian Socialist movement of the '80s and '90s, led by such men as W. D. P. Bliss, R. T. Ely and George D. Herron, was non-Marxian and unconnected with the Socialist Party of that time. Since 1900, however, Christian Socialism has stood for the movement within the Socialist Party of those who believe that only by means of the Socialist Commonwealth can Christian principles be applied in society.

The chief organization at present is the Christian Socialist Fellowship, a revival of the society existing several years ago under that name. The organ is the Christian Socialist, published at Chicago by the chief executive, Rev. Irwin Tucks er. The Christian Socialist League is an organization belonging to the Episcopal Church, its organ being The Social Preparation and its national secretary, Rev. A. S. Byron-Curtis, of Newark, N. J.

It is important to note that Christian Socialism does not represent a special variety of either Christianity or Socialism, but a union of the two.

12. DIRECTORY OF PARTY OFFICIALS.

I. Socialist Party. National Executive Secretary:

Adolph Germer, 803 W. Madison St., Chicago.

Representatives on International Socialist Bureau:

Morris Hillquit, 30 Church Street, New York.
Meyer London, House of Representatives, Washington,

D. C.

National Executive Committee:

Victor L. Berger, 528 Chestnut Street, Milwaukee, Wis.
Morris Hillquit, 30 Church Street, New York.
Anna A. Maley, 140 East 19th Street, New York.
John Spargo, Old Bennington, Vermont.
John M. Work, 1217 Rosedale Avenue, Chicago, Ill.

CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESI-

DENT OF THE U. S. IN 1916:
Allan L. Benson, Yonkers, New York.
George R. Kirkpatrick, 66 N. 11th Street, Newark, N. J.

State Secretaries Socialist Party. Alabama, John Hauge, Robertsdale. Alaska-Chas. Canty, Valdez. Arizona-Alice Eddy, 33 South Fourth Ave., Phoenix. Arkansas-Freda Hogan. California–T. W. Williams, 629 Wesley Roberts Bldg., Los Angeles. Colorado-Emma F. Langdon, 1395 Lowell Blvd., Denver. Connecticut-Martin F. Plunkett, 23 Wallace Bldg., Wallingford. Delaware-H. D. Jellison, 1806 Tetnal St., Wilmington. Dist. of Columbia---J. Webb Richman, 811'E St., N. W., Washington. Florida-Franklin Pimbley, 317 W. Michigan Ave., Tampa. Georgia-Mrs. Mary Raoul Millis, 229 E 10th St., Atlanta. Idaho-I. F. Stewart, Nampa. Illinois-John C. Kennedy, 803 West Madison St., Chicago, Ill. Indiana--Wm. H. Henry, Room 30, Mansur_Block, Indianapolis. Iowa—I. S. McCrillis, Park Ave., Station, Des Moines. Kansas-G. W. Kleihege, 1201 New Jersey St., Lawrence. Kentucky-J. L. Stark, 715 So. 6th St., Louisville. Louisiana-J. R. Jones, Georgetown. Maine-Fred E. Irish, 57 Chestnut St., Bath, Me. Maryland-Karl Hartig, 1463 Andre St., Baltimore. Massachusetts-James Oneal, 14 Park Sq., Room 7, Boston. Michigan-John Keracher, 512 Dix Ave., Detroit. Minnesota-W. A. Stafford, 1317 Western Ave., Minneapolis. Mississippi—Ida M. Raymond, R. R. No. 3, Jackson. Missouri-Otto Vierling, 966 Chateau Ave., St. Louis. Montana-Albert F. Meissner, Room 34, Silver Bow Block, Butte. Nebraska-G. C. Porter, Morrill. Nevada-Justus E Taylor, P. O. Box 6, Reno. New Hampshire-Fred E. Irish, 57 Chestnut St., Bath, Me. New Jersey--Milo C. Jones, 124 Market St., Newark. New Mexico-Mrs. DeRoy Welsh, Norton. New York—U. Solomon, Room 941, 41 Union Sq., New York City. North Carolina-B. T. Tiller, Asheville. North Dakota-H. R. Martinson, Box 717, Minot. Ohio–0. G. Van Schoyck, 101 N. High St., Columbus. Oklahoma-H. M. Sinclair, Room 414,, Scott Thompson Bldg., Okla

homa City. Oregon-Victor J. McCone, Arion Hall, 231% Oak St., Portland.

Pennsylvania-Robert B. Ringler, P. O. Box 285, Reading.
Rhode Island-Robt. Hunt, Box 579, Providence.
South Carolina-Wm. Eberhard, 257 King St., Charleston.
South Dakota-E. F. Atwood, Sisseton.
Tennessee L. R. Robinson, 2609 E. 13th St., Chattanooga.
Texas-W. T. Webb, Cisco.
Utah-C. T. Stoney, 713 First Ave., Salt Lake City.
Vermont-C. H. Reynolds, 10 Hillside Ave., Barre.
Virginia-B. F. Gunther, Brookneal.
Washington-D. E. Katterfeld, Box 491, Everett.
West Virginia-Edwin Firth, 1513 Seventh Ave., Huntington.
Wisconsin-F. W. Rehfeld, Brisbane Hall, Milwaukee.
Wyoming-Clement Gilleard, 508 First St., Rocksprings.

II. Socialist Labor Party. National Secretary:

Arnold Petersen, 45 Rose Street, New York, N. Y. National Treasurer:

William A. Walters, 45 Rose Street, New York, N. Y.

Standard Dictionary. "Socialism is a theory of civil polity that aims to secure the reconstruction of society, increase of wealth, and a more equal distribution of the products of labor, through the collective ownership of land and capital, and the public management of all industries."

Century Dictionary. "Socialism is any theory or system of social organization which would abolish entirely, or in greater part, the individual effort and competition on which modern society rests, and substitute for it co-operative action; would introduce a more perfect and equal distribution of the products of labor and would make land and capital as the instruments and means of production, the joint possession of the members of the community."

Webster's International Dictionary. “Socialism: A theory or system of social reform which contemplates a complete reconstruction of society, with a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor. In popular usage, the term is often employed to indicate any lawless, revolutionary social scheme.”

Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition. “Socialism is that policy or theory which aims at securing by the action of the central democratic authority a better distribution, and in due subordination thereunto a better production of wealth than now prevails.”

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