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§ 3. Certain rare circumstances excepted, high wages imply

restraints on population 349

4. — which are in some cases legal 353

5. — in others the effect of particular customs .... 355

6. Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a

labouring class 357

\ Chapter XII. Of Popular Remedies for Low Wages

§ 1. A legal or customary minimum of wages, with a guarantee

of employment 361

2. — would require as a condition, legal measures for re-

pression of population 363

3. Allowances in aid of wages 366

4. The Allotment System 368

Chapter XIII. Remedies for Low Wages further considered

§ 1. Pernicious direction of public opinion on the subject of

population 373

2. Grounds for expecting improvement 376

3. Twofold means of elevating the habits of the labouring

people: by education 380

4. — and by large measures of immediate relief, through

foreign and home colonization 381

Chapter XIV. Of the Differences of Wages in different

Employments

§ 1. Differences of wages arising from different degrees of

attractiveness in different employments 385

2. Differences arising from natural monopolies .... 390

3. Effect on wages of a class of subsidized competitors . . 394

4. — of the competition of persons with independent means

of support 397

5. Wages of women, why lower than those of men . . . 400 6. Differences of wages arising from restrictive laws, and

from combinations 401

7. Cases in which wages are fixed by custom 403

Chapter XV. Of Profits

§ 1. Profits resolvable into three parts; interest, insurance,

and wages of superintendence 405

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