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JJ.—Usury Laws (p. 930)

The pretty general repeal all over Europe of the old usury laws has been followed since 1878 by a reaction, and a great number of " usury laws" have been passed in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, and other countries; as well as for the possessions of the Great Powers outside Europe, as e.g. for the Punjaub, the Soudan, Algiers, &c. For an account and estimate of this movement, seeSchmoller, Grundriss, § 189 (Prmcipes, vol. in.). As to the English "Money-lenders Act" of 1900, see the observations from a point of view identical with that of Mill in Dicey, Law and Public Opinion in England (1905), pp. 33 and 45.

KK.—The Factory Acts (p. 759)

See, on the whole subject, Hutchins and Harrison, A History of Factory Legislation (1907). The legislature, after restricting the freedom of contract of adult men in various other ways, began very tentatively in 1893 to regulate their hours of labour by the Act of that year giving power to the Board of Trade to order railway companies to submit revised schedules of hours of duty for their servants: hereon see Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Labour, No. 20 (1899). Since then, by the Miners' Eight Hours Act (1908), it has introduced a "normal day " for a large number of adult men.

LL.—The Poor Law (p. 969)

The Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law (1909) contains copious and systematically arranged treatises, in the Majority and Minority Reports, and in the supplementary volumes of Reports of special inquiries, on all aspects of the history and practice of the Poor Law since 1834; and will doubtless lead to considerable legislative changes.

MM.—The Province Of Government (p. 979)

On this subject, in its general philosophical aspects, the most influential English writings since the time of Mill have perhaps been those of Sidgwick, Principles of Political Economy (1883), bk. iii. chs. 3 and 4; and Elements of Politics (1891); and Green, Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation in Works (1886), vol. ii. See also Ritchie, Natural Rights (1895), and, with regard to certain arguments drawn from modern biology, his Darwinism and Politics (1889).

INDEX

Abstinence, remuneration for, 32,36,
729

Agriculture, natural advantages, 102;
much division of labour impos-
sible in, 131; grande and petite cul-
ture, 144-5; improvements in, 183;
British, ib.; produce, 572-3

Allotment system, 368

America, Indians in North A., 104;
work in, 105 n.; Indian villages,
167-9; farming in, 180; emigra tion, 197; slavery (q.v.), 251
tenure in North A., 258; population, 350, 353; cotton trade
414; profits, 420; silver mines
485, 507; Spanish A., 655
cotton failure, 665; wages, 681
cotton, 682; rates of profits, 731
wealth and population, 761, 892

Arctic whale fisheries, 27

Argovie, population, 291; laws of
marriage, 355

Arkwright, invention of, 96; its
effect, 193, 350

Asia, economical condition, 14; cause
of poverty in, 113; population in,
159; high rate of interest in, 175;
limits of production in, 189

Attwood, on currency, 550

Australia, wool-growers, 43; Western
A., 65; agriculture in, 194; coloni-
sation, 197; growth of population
in, 350: gold mines, 485; annual
gold produce, 673; wealth and
population, 761; colonisation, 973

Austria, serf labour, 252; currency
reform, 667

Babbage, Mr., Economy of Machinery
and Manufacture, 107; instances of

frauds, 112; value of trust in busi-
ness, ib.; on division of labour,
123, 125-6, 129; on production on
a large scale, 132; on co-operation,
765, 772 n.

Bank Charter Act, 651

Bank notes, 519, 529

Barham, Dr., 765

Bastiat, metayers, 305 n.; on property
in land, 430 Bavaria, farms, 298; laws of mar-
riage, 354

Beam, small farms in, 279 Bedford Level, the, 92, 182, 230, 430 Bedfordshire, lace-making, 311; agri-
cultural labourers, 357 Belgium, cattle in, 147 n. ; peasant
proprietors, 239, 271; manufac-
turing distress (in 1849), 275 n.;
population, 296; Poor Colonies of,
424; peasant-class, 482 Bengal, land tenure, 327 Bentham, 223, 397, 806, 861, 885, 927 Bequest, 226 Berlin Decrees, the, 112 Berne, farms, 262 n., 269 Berwickshire, farmers in, 265 Birmingham, currency school, 550 Blacker, William, 146 n. Blackstone, on entails, 895 Blanc, Louis, 203, 773, 780 n. Bombay, land tenure, 327 Brazil, slavery in, 255; bullion, 608 Briggs, Messrs., co-operation, 771 Browne, Mr.,consul at Copenhagen, 292 Buckinghamshire, lace-making, 311;
agricultural labourers, 357

Cabet, 203

Cairnes, Prof., on Ireland, 338 n.
California, gold mines, 485; gold from,
673

Campagna of Rome, agricultural ten-
ure, 240, 258; small farms in, 276 n.

Campbell, Lord, 886

Campine, the sands in, 271

Canada, emigration to, 197; timber
trade, 415

Capital, defined, 54; distinction be-
tween C. and not-C., 56; wages a
part of C., 57; further examples of
use of, 59; fundamental proposi-
tions respecting C., 63; distinction
between industry and C., 64; C.
may perish for want of labour, 65;
error that unproductive expenditure
of C. will employ the poor, 66;
C. and luxuries, 67-8; source of,
68; how consumed, 70; perpetual
consumption and reproduction of
C, 74; C. of producer pays labour,
79; circulating C. defined, 91; fixed
C. defined, 92; distinction between
circulating C. and fixed C, 93, 99;
a primary requisite of production
(q.v.), 101; law of increase of, 163;
net-produce of, 164; great accumu-
lation in England, 173; transfer
among employments, 412; C. and
profits, 452, 639; waste of, 731;
sinking of, 742

Carey, H. C, population, 157 n.,
158 n.; on law of agricultural in-
dustry, 181-2; on rent, 430-2; on
partnership, 902 n.; on chartered
companies, 907; on protection,
922-5

Chalmers, Dr., 67 n., 75, 77; on land,
424, 557, 562, 690, 727, 840

Chancery, Court of, 885, 906

Channel Islands, peasant properties in,
276-7

Charity, 969

Charlevoix, 169

Chateauvieux, on metayers, 303, 308,
310,311 Cherbuliez, 777 To., 780 n. Cheques, and prices, 536 Chevalier, on co-operation, 769 China, 105 n.t 170; stationary state
in, 172-3, 565; American ships
trading to, 764 Circulating and fixed capital, 91 Clement, 295 n.

Colonisation, Wakefield on, 121;remedy for low wages, 381 (see
Wakefield) Commandite, 900

Communism, 202 n., 203; examined,
204-11

Competition, 242; in prices, 245; of
different countries in the same
market, 678-87; underselling,
679-84; advantage of, 793

Co-operation, increases productive-
ness of labour, 116; in agriculture
(q.v.), 144; growth of, 698; forms
of, 764-94; English, 783-8

Coquelin, 902, 904-5

Corn, laws, 186, 338; taxes, 840-7;
laws (again), 920

Cornish miners, 765

Cost of production, 451-68, 566, 569

Cottiers, 318-28; means of abolishing
cottier tenancy, 329-42

Cotton famine, 757

Credit, effect on profits, 413; as a
substitute for money (q.v.), 511-
22; defined, 511; credit and
commerce, 514; bills of exchange,
515; cheques, 520; influence on
prices, 523-41; commercial prices,
527; bank notes, 531-52; Bank of
England notes, 539; an inconver-
tible paper currency, 542-55;
Bank of England (1819), 552

Crimean War, effect on currency, 665

Crises, 641, 644, 651, 709, 734, 845

Cuba, slavery in, 249, 255, 686

Cumberland, 257

Currency, influence of, on exchanges
and foreign trade, 629-38; de-
preciated, 646; on the regulation of
a convertible C, 656-7 n.; paper
C, 651-77; Bank Charter Act
(1844), 657-8; drains on Bank re-
serve, 672 To.; bank-note C, 674

Custom, 242; defined, 243; in prices,
247

D

De L'IsLE Brock, on Guernsey
labouring classes, 276-7

Demand for commodities, 79; deter-
mines direction of labour, 87

Demand and supply, and value, 442;
defined, 445; demand exceeding
supply, 446 ; monopolies, 449; value
of labour depends upon, 450; real
law of, 455; recapitulation, 456

Denmark, 239 n.; abolition of slavery,
255; population, 292; currency
reform, 667

Deposits, bank, 648

De Quincey, on value, 436-7, 442,
446, 449," 454

Devon Commission on Ireland, 323,
337 n.

Diminishing Returns, law of, 177, 179,
181, 183, 185, 188, 190, 427, 469 Distributing class, denned, 39, 789 Distribution, laws of, 21, 200; dis-
tribution as affected by exchange,
688-94; influence of the progress of
society on production and distribu-
tion, 695 Domestic manufactures, 683 Dorsetshire, agricultural labourers, 357 Doubleday, on population, 157 n.,
158 n. Dunning, T. J., 939 n.

Dunoyer, on extractive industry, 33,
950-2, 954 n.

E

Elliott, J. H., 911 n.

Ellis, William, on machinery, 728

Emigration, cause of, 193; in form

of colonisation, 197, 701
Engadine, peasant proprietors, 261
Engineers, Society of, 936, 938
England, agriculture, 31; reproduc-
tion of wealth (q.v.), 74; compared
with other nations, 101; workmen
in, 105 n.; law and police, 111;
security, 115; increase of produc-
tion on a large scale, 142; small
farms, 145; cattle, 147 n.; popu-
lation, 160-1; accumulation of
capital (q.v.), 173; land cultiva-
tion, 175, 182-5; Poor Laws (q.v.),
187; population progress, 192;
wages (q.v.), 220; bequest, 228-9 n.;
landed property, 232 ; yeomen, 256;
farmers, 265; peasants, 267; agri-
culture, compared with the Channel
Islands (q.v.), 277; rate of popu-
lation, 294; tenant farmers, 306;
wages and food, 347-8; agricul-
tural population, 356; retail profits,
415-20; land in, 426-31; gold
standard, 509; high prices, 610;
currency, 633; banking, 677; agri-
culture, 704 ; interest, 730-5 ; over-
flow of capital abroad, 738; rail-
ways, 743-5; co-operation, 783-8;
land-tax, 819; tithes, 845; law of
inheritance, 890

Eschcr, Mr., of Zurich, 109

Europe, 2; ancient agriculture in,
14; source of wealth of modern
E., 17; temperate regions, 102;
security, 113; market for Indian
goods, 122; population, 153, 159,
161; effective desire of accumu-
lation, 170; cultivation, 179;
property, 208; laws, 227; usage
of tenure, 245; custom of prices,
247; farms, 270; hoarding, 554;
profit and savings, 731; taxation
of land, 819

Exchange, the operation of, 88; bills
of, 515, 529, 613

Exports and Imports, 578, 611, 619;
disturbances of, 618, 624; undis-
turbed, 625; taxes on, 850-6

Fane, Cecil, 898 n., 905 n., 914 n. Fawcett, Prof., 937 Feugueray, 774, 780 n., 781-2, 793 Flanders, 18; security, 114; small
farms and peasant-farming, 147-8;high farming, 179; crops, 265, 271-
5, 280; peasant proprietors, 284;population, 291; free cities, 882 Flemish Husbandry, treatise on, 147 n. Florence, metayers near, 309-11 Food, importation of, 193; exports of,
195

Foreign exchanges, 612-18

Fourierism, 204, 212; examined, 213-
16

France, agriculture, 31; railways,
144; cattle, 148 n.; labour, com-
pared with England, 150-2; popu-
lation, 153, 161; cultivation, 182;
Socialism, 204, 211; bequest, 227,
229 n.; trades, 236; peasant pro-
prietors, 239; agricultural tenure,
240, 260 n., 278; metayers, 306-7;
food, 481; silver standard, 509 n.;
credit, 522; assignats, 547; trade,
575; bank notes, 666; agriculture,
704; co-operation, 783; taxes, 820;
law of inheritance, 890; partner-
ship laws, 900; manufactures,
900-2

Frankfort, laws of marriage, 354 French Economistes, on rent, 26 Fullarton, on currency, 498, 500 n.9
537; bank circulation, 652-5, 668-
70, 675

G

Germany, medieval free towns, 18;
wood-cutters, 34; peasant proprie-
tors, 239; northern provinces, 252;
cultivation of land, 260 n.t 2G4 n.,
267; population, 291; peasant
class, 482; trade with, 575; inter-
national values with, 584-606;
co-operation, 783

Gisquet, co-operation, 77 n.

Gladstone, income-tax, 806 n.; taxa-
tion, 871

Godley, J. R., 179 n.

Gold and silver, as money (q.v.)9
484 ; as commodities, 502, 607-11;
their distribution in commerce, 619-
28; their cost of production varies,
629

Government, its functions, 795-801;
revenues from taxation (q.v.), 802;
on the ordinary functions of, con-
sidered as to their economical effects,
881-8; further effects, 889-915;
interference of, 916-40; protection,
917-26; monopolies, 932; combin-
ations of workmen, 933-9; limits
of G., 941-79; laissez-faire,
950

Graduated taxation, 806, 808

Gray, John, on money, 549

Great Britain, coal-fields, 103; farm-
ing, 180; emigration, 197; landed
proprietors, 231; workmen, 239 n.;
emigration for colonisation (q.v.),
384; land value, 431; credit, 521;
agriculture, 704; population, 704;
tithes, 845

Greece, soldiers' gains, 50; sculptures
of, 74; its colonies, 114

Greeks, ancient, 48, 104

Guernsey, peasant farms, 276

H

Hainatjlt, crops in, 271

Hanse towns, 686, 882 ,

Hardenberg, land reforms, 334

Hargreaves, invention of, 96

Harlem, Lake of, 182

Head, Sir George, on Guernsey, 276

Holland, cattle in, 147 n.; low rate

of interest, 173, 175; fens of, 185;

crops in, 265; peasant farms, 271;

trade, 687; profits, 884
Holyoake, 784-8

Howitt, W., 266

Hubbard, on income-tax, 815 n.

Huber, Prof., 780 n.

Hume, on money, 496, 550-1

Hungary, 20 n., 252 n., 738

Income-tax, 806-17; graduated, 808-
10; on annuities, 811; savings,
813-17; defined, 829-32

Inconvertible currency, 542-55, 634

Increasing returns, 703

India, 13, 121; small towns, 122;
native states, 173; tenure, 240;
ryots, 243; customs in tenure, 244;
land tenure, 324-8; high interest
on loans, 409

Industry, extractive, defined, 33;
limited by capital (q.v.), 63; dis-
tinction between I. and capital,
64; influence of the progress of I.
and population on values and prices,
700-9 ; influence of the progress of
I. and population on rents, profits,
and wages, 710-24

Inglis, 260

Inheritance, 221

Inquisition, the, 940

Interest, defined, 406; market rate of,
411; on the rate of, 639-50; and
loans, 639; fluctuations, 641; war
loans, 643; rate depends on capital
loaned, 647; value and price of
funds determined by, 649; low
interest, 732-3
International trade, 574-606

Ireland, 102; farms small, 145-9,
180; tenancy, 187; emigration,
197; landed property, 232; tenure,
318; cottiers, ib.; peasantry, 322-
34; proposed reforms in cottier
tenancy, 331-7; low wages, 419;
low profits, 420; emigration for
colonisation, 975

Irish peasantry, 56; landowners, 234;
cottier tenants, 258

Italy, ancient, 16; towns in medi-
eval I., 18; security in, 114;
peasant farming in, 148, 239; agri-
cultural tenure, 240, 258, 260 n.;
crops in, 280; peasant farming,
284; metayers, 303, 307, 308, 311,
316; peasant-class, 482; free cities
of, 882

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