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The doctor, who is of Irish extraction, has spent a great part of a long life in the Galitsin family, has been handsomely treated by different members of it; and now, in his advanced years and infirm state of health, has here a happy asylum, where he expects to terminate his days. The conduct of the present prince, to whom he is attached, does honour to human nature, and calls forth the most lively gratitude.

Prince Serge Galitsin is one of the representatives of a very ancient family of the Galitsins ; I say Serge Galitsins, because there are differeni families of this name in Russia, nearly every one of which can reckon many princes belonging to it. Perhaps there are not less than fifty or sixty Prince Galitsins in Russia, which renders it absolutely necessary to add their Christian names for the sake of distinction.

Prince Serge Galitsin might be quoted as one of the best specimens of a well-educated, well-polished, and well-informed Russian nobleman. From his appearance, his dress, his conduct, and his conversation, he might vie with most individuals of his rank in any of the capitals of Europe. He is a very active man, and much of his time is devoted to the service of the public and of humanity. He is the chief director of the Hospital at Moscow which bears his own name; and with the assistance of the medical attendant, has carried that institution to a pitch of perfection which surprises every foreigner, whether in respect of its external or internal appearance, or of its general management. He is also one of the directors of the great Foundling Hospital, of the Lombard, &c.; and may be reckoned a most useful citizen, and an honour to his country. He is also one of the many pobles who have been separated from their wives soon after marriage. The prince had his property, and so had the princess : they were unhappy together, and therefore thought it more advisable to have separate establishments. This is quite à-la-mode in Russia ; and the parties sometimes carry their condescensions, after separation, to a pitch which to many must appear extraordinary and ridiculous. For instance, I know a prince of an ancient family, who, after having had a number of children by his lady, agreed to a separation. She now resides with ber father, as well as the children, and the prince makes an annual visit to see them, and pass a week or two at his father-in-law's : and once or twice the princes has made a visit to her husband at his country estate. These are strange doings !!!

Ostankovo, more frequently called Ostankino, consists of a small village, in which a truly noble mansion is situated. It lies to the north of Moscow, and about two miles distant from the Troitskaya Zastava, (or barrier), on a great plain, varied by gentle slopes in the bosom of gardens, lakes, lawns, pastures, corn fields, woods, and forests.* Ostankovo belonged to the late Count Nikolai Petrovitch Sheremotof, and is now in possession of his son, the richest noble in the Russian empire.

The palace of Ostankino is remarkable for the chaste style of its architecture, and the harmony and general beauty of its proportions. It consists of a fine façade, the centre of which is adorned by six

* In ames's Tra we find it stated, that at a grand fète given to the Emperor Alexander, after his coronation, by Count Sheermetof, the road for a hundred versts was lighted by lamps. This is really the extreme of extravagance ; for Ostankino is only about three versts distant from the nearest barrier of the city.

Corinthian columns, over which rises a handsome pediment with a dome behind it, while each of the sides has six lonic columns ; and of two long paltry advancing detached wings, which greatly hurt the effect of the body. Between these wings passes a fine balustrade, inclosing a court and penetrated by a gate on each side. The pillars at the sides of the gates were formerly surmounted by excellent equestrian statues, which were so injured during the French invasion in 1812, that they have lately been removed. Before this noble mansion is a small lake, fringed with wood, and generally covered, during the fine season, with geese and swans. At a short distance from it is elevated a handsome old white-washed church, overtopped by a number of green domes, which add great beauty 10 the place ;-the effect of which is much diminished, however, by the meanness of some of the offices and adjoining houses.

The gardens are very extensive, and have been laid out with taste. Walks run to great distances, on all sides, among the woods.

A number of small lakes adjoining each other, form the north boundary of the pleasure grounds, and have a beautiful appearance in spring and sumwer. At present only a small part of the gardens is kept in order; in these is preserved the absurd taste of cropping the trees, in nume-, rous short avenues, into the most fantastic, unnatural and disagreeable figures. A number of large and beautiful cedars, in their native luxuriance, form a complete contrast to the eye : one of these is distinguished for its immense size and its great age. The hot-houses and greenhouses are very numerous, and produce abundance of various fine, fruits, especially oranges and lemons, some thousands of which are appually sold at the great market of Moscow. The gardens are under the direction of Mr. Manners, an Englishman, who, I believe, has not been allowed to consult his own taste in their distribution.

So much for the exterior of Ostankino: let us now return to the palace. Its apartments are very numerous and spacious; all the floors are inlaid and variegated; many of the walls are hung, with tapestry; and the furniture is rich and splendid. In the second story is a handsome and elegant theatre, where the slaves of the Count, according to the custom of Russia, occasionally perform national plays. What attracts most attention, however, is the collection of paintings, of various schools, in a badly lighted picture-gallery, but few of which are master-pieces; a number of statues, especially two of Venus and one of Apollo; urns, vases, mosaicks, antiques ; about half a dozen beautiful malachite tables, 'as well as a number of lapis lazuli and marble ones; besides many other curiosities. A fine statue of Catharine II., as well as the statues and busts of the present Emperor Alexander, and of the Imperial family, in one of the rooms on the ground-floor, and a painting of the late Emperor Paul, habited in the Imperial mantle, which was executed by one of the proprietor's slaves, all deserve particular regard. A remarkably fine statue of Hygeia. which was brought from Athens, claims the highest attention, and rather astonishes the beholder, in a country that has been esteemed by some the abode of barbarism. The drapery is beautifully executed ; but, in consequence of an accident, the head and arms were ruined, and have been but very indifferently replaced It is said that this statue, in its present dilapidated state, is valued at 9000 roubles, or about

4001. sterling. An inscription on its base indicates when, and by whom, it was made, but the copy of it I cannot find among my memoranda.

The armoury, in the right wing, contains many coats of mail ; the arms of different Asiatic tribes and European nations ; gaudy horse caparisons, as saddles, saddle-cloths, bridles, stirrups, &c. &c. The velvet saddle of Charles XII. of Sweden, adorned with turquoises and calcedonies, which was taken by Field-marshal Sheremetof at the battle of Poltava, attracts particular notice on account of its ancient proprietor. Even the coarse picture of the horse, richly caparisoned, which, you are told, Charles rode on the field of battle,* but now mounted by Count Sheremetof, is eagerly regarded.

The late Count Sheremetof erected a superb hospital at Moscow which bears his name, at his own expense, and left immense sums of money, besides other property, for its support. It is one of the greatest ornaments of the city, but more resembles a Grecian temple than a charitable institution; though it was designed by the distinguished Italian architect Quarenghi. It is reported that the Count married one of his own slaves, and that in order to get his na age legalized, and his children legitimatized, he spent some millions of roubles for the erection of the hospital, and then procured the autocratic fiat; which, it would seem, can make things unnatural altogether natural, by a summary process, an Imperial ukaz.

The young Count, notwithstanding his father's expenditure for the hospital, is still by far the richest individual in Russia, and has no less than 120,000 slaves.

Kaghul, formerly called Troitskoye, and Kainardji, formerly called Karneva, are two estates about twelve or thirteen miles south-west from Moscow, which belonged to the late Count Peter Alexandrovitch Rumantsof, and received their present appellations on account of a victory gained over the Turks by him at Kaghul, and of the treaty of peace with the Porte, signed by him'at Kainardji. They are now the property of the present Chancellor of the empire, Count Rumantsof, who has a pleasant wooden dwelling-house at Kaghul, besides offices, gardens, &c. But the farms and farm houses chiefly attract the notice of the stranger. For many years they were managed and immensly improved by Mr. Rogers, a Scotchman, while his late wife carried the dairy to a state of perfection, before unknown in this part of the country, and indeed, with the exception of a few spots, unknown in Russia. The butter and cheese from Count Rumantsof's estates, sell at double and even trehle the price of the same articles at the great market at Moscow. The cheese, according to its quality, produces one and a half, two, and even three roubles per pound. The butter, formerly sold at a rouble per pound, now fetches two roubles; and during the time the Court was at Moscow in the years 1817–18, it brought three and even four roubles per pound. The cows are remarkably fine, and are mostly descended from English breeds.

* In the Museum of Moscow is preserved the brancard, or litter, on which Charles XII. was carried during the battle of Poltava. He may have mounted the said horse previous to the battle.

Good butter is not to be found in Russia, except in the capitals, and at some of the estates of the nobles--at least, what is so termed in Great Britain. At Petersburgh foreigners are supplied with this commodity chiefly by the Germans, who reside in the vicinity; and at Moscow, as mentioned, from Count Rumantsof's estates, and hy a few other individuals who bring the produce of their farms to the Ochot noi Riad, or chief market of that city. In the greater part of the interior of the empire, the same kind of butter cannot be obtained; and this deficiency proves very disagreeable to many travellers, (and among them did so to myself,) who are fond of good butter, though they can put up with almost every inconvenience of travelling. The Russian butter is made by placing milk or cream in an oven, 'and skimming off the butter as it separates. This butter is of a very strong quality, and is admirably adapted for the use of the kitchen, as one pound will go as far as two or three of our butter in frying, pastry, &c. It generally has a granular appearance, a strong smell, and a white or yellow colour. It serves the Russian peasantry, who consume great quantities of it, mixed with boiled millet, and who, during the fasts, replace it by hemp oil: a proof that they are not very fastidious. To them our butter, even of the best quality, would have little relish, because it is not greasy enough for their palate and constitution. The Teuchonsky Masla, as they call it, because much of it is made by the Fins, was never intended for the Russians, according to their belief. The Ruskaya Masla, or real Russian butter, they esteem the richest and the best in the world. Many of the nobles, however, are of a different opinion, and speak highly of English butter.

At Karneva is a similar farm—and, what is rare, a Scotch farm. It was intended to build a large house there of stone; but the invasion of the French in 1812 interrupted the operations, after the foundation had been laid : and as yet only one of the wings has been finished, together with stables, cow-houses, and offices. All these structures are of stone, found in the vicinity, and I believe form a rarity, if not a singularity, in Russia-a stone farm-house.

As Count Rumantsof takes great delight in rural ecomomy, and is not parsimonious, these farms may become greatly productive and valuable. It is to be regretted, however, that owing to some misunderstanding between the steward of Count Rumantsof and Mr. Rogers, the latter received his dismission, not long after the decease of his former wife ; who was supposed by many to be as good a farmer as himself; indeed, some say she was the superior of the two. I believe Mr. Rogers, jun., who is director of the farm which belongs to the Agricultural Society of Moscow, has now control over the farms of Count Rumantsof.

Count Rumantsos is one of the most zealous and most liberal improvers of his country. Some years ago, at his own expense, he fitted out the Rurik under Captain Kotzebue, which circumnavigated the globe; he has long introduced every practical improvement of agriculture into the farms described, as well as at Gomel, in the south of Russia, and one of the finest estates in the empire: new and valuable breeds of horses, cows, sheep, &c. have all been welcomed by him, and no expense spared to render them useful ; besides, the Count encourages all kinds of useful societies by liberal donations; and he has also defrayed the expense of the publication of a number of ancient records. He is truly one of the patrons of arts, sciences, and general knowledge, and in this respect he merits the gratitude of his countrymen while he presents them an example worthy of imitation.

Kuntsova is a fine estate of the Lord Chamberlain's (grand chambellan), Alexander Lvovitch Narishkin, a descendant of one of the ancient families of Russia, and a man of considerable talents and information. It lies at the distance of six versts, or four miles, from Moscow, along the south elevated and romantic bank of the Moskva. The mansion-house, which is but a mean wooden edifice, beautifully overhangs this river, and commands a delightful and extensive view, which includes the great city of the Russian empire—the truly venerated metropolis, Mother Moscou.

Kuntsova is placed opposite to Kharoshóvo, where is remarked a line of new buildings, in which is kept a part of the imperial stud, that well deserves the attention of the connoisseur and the amateur.

The Skotnoi Dvore, or Cattle-Court, consists of a number of good low brick edifices, which have an interesting appiarance to the southwest of Moscow, and especially from the Sparrow-hill

. This establishment belongs to the Foundling Hospital of the ancient metropolis, which it supplies with milk, and besides it serves as a nursery for those children who have lost their health.

It is impossible for the stranger not to be struck most forcibly with the magnificent appearance of the Foundling Hospital at Moscow; the most extensive institution of the kind in the world. The visitor will be highly pleased also with its apparent utility. Yet Dr. Lyall questions its real utility, and states, that although the number of roundlings on the books generally amounts to about 9000, yet that the greater part are sent out of the house to wet nurses, who are, for the most part, the wives of the peasants, and who train up their children in the most careless and hardy manner. From this circumstance, and a variety of other causes, the mortality of the foundlings is extremely great-indeed, to a degree which I am fearful of naming. This is said to be the reason why no annual bills of mortality are published; but it is probably a circumstance of little importance, because, if they did see the light, it could be only under the eyes of the police, who would make them what they judged necessary to please the patrons and the protectors of the hospital. No public reports made by the police are deemed worthy of the least confidence. The functionaries deceive the Emperor himself, and therefore find no difficulty in deceiving the public, or, at least, the credulous part of the public.

Bethany, (in Russ called Viphania, or the Spassoviphanski Monasteer,) which lies near the Monastery of the Trinity, and above forty miles from Moscow, is a place deserving of peculiar notice, on account of its having been the favourite residence of the enlightened and distinguished Platorf, late Metropolitan of that city, and Archimandrite of the Trinity Monastery.

Platon is well known to the world as a man who raised himself, by his talents, to the first dignity in the Russian hierarchy, who was preceptor to the late Emperor Paul, who carried on a correspondence with Monsieur Dutens, in which he endeavoured to shew that the Pope was Antichrist, and who composed an excellent summary of the RussoGreek Faith, which has been translated into English by Dr. Pinkerton. In the last work it is impossible not to be struck with the industry, the erudition, and the liberality of the author, though almost every page be tinctured with the superstitions of his creed, and though many overstrainings be remarked in the illustration of its tenets. He assuredly was the most liberal-minded divine in the Russo-Greek church, and might be regarded as a phenomenon in the empire of the North.' Though his knowledge was pretty general, it was, however,

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