« НазадПродовжити »
Bartholomew, and the church of St was likewise a market-place for cattle, hay, Bartholomew, all the void ground eighty straw, and other necessary provisions; and seven feet in length, and sixty in also, saith Stow, “it hath been a place for breadth, adjoining the church westward, honourable justs and triumphs, by reason for a church-yard. In the first year it was unpaid.” After it had ceased to of Edward VI, that king confirmed the be a place of recreative exercise with the grant to sir Richard Rich, who was crea- gentry, loose serving men and quarrel. led lord Rich, and appointed lord chan- some persons resorted thither, and made cellor of England; but under Mary the uproars; and thus becoming the rendezejected monks were restored to the priory, vous of bullies and bravoes, it obtained where they remained till the accession of the name of “ Ruffians’-hall.”
The queen Elizabeth, who renewed the grant “ sword and buckler" were at that time to lord Rich and his heirs; and lord Rich in use, and a serving-man carried a buck. took up his residence in Cloth-fair. The ler, or shield, at his back, which hung by lord Rich ultimately became earl of War- the hilt or pommel of his sword hanging wick and Holland, and the property re- before him.* Fellows of this sort who gularly descended to the present lord hectored and blustered called Kensington, through William Edwards, “Swash-bucklers,” from the noise they who was son of the lady Elizabeth Rich, made with the “sword and buckler” to and created, in 1776, baron of Kensington frighten an antagonist : “ a bully," or felof the kingdom of Ireland.
low all noise and no courage, was called Henry VIII. having in this way disposed a swasher.”+ of the priory and church of St. Bartholo With the disuse of pageants, the necesmew, he gave the hospital, with certain sity for Smithfield remaining a messuages and appurtenances, to the city ground” ceased ; and, accordingly, as “it of London. When connected with the was continually subject to the iniquity of priory, it had been governed by a master, weather, and being a place of such goodly brethren, and eight sisters.
extendure, deserved to be much better On the 13th of January, 1546, the respected, it pleased the king's majesty, bishop of Rochester (Holbetch,) preaching (James I.) with the advice of his honour. at Paul's-cross, declared the gift of St. able lords of the counsell, to write gra Bartholomew's hospital to the citizens ciously to the lord maior and the alder. " for relieving of the poore;" and there- men his brethren, that Smithfield might be upon the inhabitants of the city were sufficiently paved, which would bee the called together in their parish churches, onely meanes, whereby to have it kept in where sir Richard Dobbs the lord mayor, far cleaner condition: And” says Stow, he several aldermen, and other principal as no motion (to any good end and initizens, showing the great good of taking tent) can be made to the city, but they as he poor from their miserable habitations, gladly embrace and willingly pursue it ; and providing for them in hospitals even so this honourable motion found as abroad, men were moved liberally to con- acceptable entertainment, and it was very tribute what they would towards such speedily proceeded withall. Some volunhospitals, and so weekly, towards their tary contribution in the severall parishes maintenance for a time, until they were (what each man willingly would give) was fully endowed; and in July 1552 the re- bestowed on the worke; but, (indeed,) paration of the St. Bartholomew's hospi- hardly deserving any report. Notwithial commenced, and it was endowed and standing, on the fourth day of February, furnished at the charges of the citizens. in An. 1614, the city began the intended The number of the poor and sick to be labour, and before Baitholomew-tide then maintained therein, was limited under the next ensuing, to the credit aud honour of foundation of Henry VIII. to one hun- the city for ever, it was fully finished, and dred; but, at this time, several thousands Bartholomew Faire there kept, without of persons who need surgical aid are an- breaking any of the paved ground, but nually received and relieved, under the the boothes discreetly ordered, to stand management of the most eminent surgeons last upon the pavement. The citizens
charge thereof (as I have been credibly
told by Master Arthur Strangwaies,) Smithfield, whereon the Fair was held,
of our age
tions about the principles of grammar
“I myself," says Stow, "have yeerely « The next day, (if it be not Sunday,) schools, repaire unto the churchyard of service performed as upon Bartholomew field, where, upon a banke boorded about is appointed for the shooting, and the St. Bartholomew, the priory in Smithday ; but if it bee Sunday, the Sabbath. under a tree, some one scholler hath day, it is referred to the Munday then stepped up, and there hath opposed and
answered, till he were by some better come to wrestle before the lord mayor did like as the first, and in the end, the anon," is clearly of one who came up to best opposers and answerers had this
amounting well neere to sixteene hundred day. Concerning this annual wrast pounds." This improvement, it will be it is further noticed by Stow in an remembered, was effected in the year place, that about the feast of St. Bar wberein Ben Jonson's “ Bartholomew lomew, wrestling was exhibited before Fair" was written.
lord mayor and aldermen, at Skinder well near Clerkenwell, where they had large tent for their accommodation. He
speaks of it as having been a practice "of In “ The Order observed by the lord old time;" and affirms that “divers days maior, the aldermen, and sheriffes for were spent in the pastime, and that the their meetings, and wearing of their ap- officers of the citie, namely the sheriffes, parell throughout the whole yeere," it is serjeants, and yeomen, the porters of the ordained, That
king's beame, or weigh-house, (now no Or Bartholomew Eve for the Fayre in such men,” says Stow,) " and other of South field :
the citie were challengers of all men in “The aidermen meete the lord maior the suburbs, to wrestle for games appointand the sheriffes at the Guildhall chap- ed : and on other days, before the said pel, at two of the clocke after dinner, mayor, aldermen, and sheriffes, in Fenshaving on their violet gownes lined, and bury-field, to shoot the standard, broad their borses, but without their cloakes, arrow, and flight, for games. But now of and there they heare evening prayer. late yeeres,” Stow adds, “the wrestling Which being done, they mount on their is only practiced on Bartholomew-day in horses, and riding
to Newgate, passe the afternoone, and the shooting some forth of the gate. Then entring into the three or foure days after, in one after Cloth-fayre, there they make a procla noone and no more.” Finally, the old mation, which proclamation
being ended, chronicler laments, that “ by the means of they ride thorow the Cloth-fayre, and so closing in of common grounds, our archreturne backe againe thorow ihe church ers, for want of roome to shoot abroad yard of great Saint Bartholomewes to creepe into bowling-alleys, and ordinarie Aldersgate: and then ride home againe dicing houses, neerer home, where they to the lord maior's house."
have roome enough to hazzard their mo In the same collection of ordinances: ney at unlawful games, and there I leate
" On Bartholomew Day for the them to take their pleasures.” Another IV rastling.
narrator tells of the wrestlers before te “ So many aldermen as doe dine with lord mayor, aldermen, &c. on Bartholor the lord maior, and the sheriffes, are ap mew's day that they wrestled “ two at parelled in their scarlet gownes lined ; and a time;" he says " the conquerors are con after dinner, their horses are brought to warded by them by money thrown from aldermen which dine with the sheriffes, bits are turned loose in the crowd, and ride with them to the lord maior's house hunted by boys with great noise.com for accompanying him to the wrastlings. which the mayor and aldermen do mucha When as the wrastling is done, they besport themselves." mount their horses, and ride backe againe gate, and then home againe to the lord the London scholars held logical disputz
It was on St. Bartholomew's-eve that maior's house." “ The Shooting Day.
seen the scholars of divers grammar, fo.lowing." lomew Fair," of " the western man who is then the overcommer taking the price the annual wrestling on Bartholomew's
wards." These disputations ceased at the suppression of the priory, but were revived, though,“ only for a yeare or waine," under Edward VI., where the
best scholars received bows, and arrows of silver, for their prizes.
The Bartholomew Fair of 1655, is the subject of
An Ancient Song of Bartholomew Fair.
In fifty-five, may I never thrive,
If I tell you any more than is true,
Of a Fair they call Bartholomew.
As easie as squirrels crack filberds;
But those we suppose to be ill birds.
For a penny you may zee a fine puppet play,
And for two-pence a rare piece of art;
May put zix of 'ein into a quart.
The heart of a very fine man-a;
And the history of Susanna.
At Pye-corner end, mark well, my good friend,
Tis a very fine dirty place;
Than was handld at Chivy Chase.
There's a place they call Shoemaker Row,
Or go barefoot all the year I tro'.
lo 1699, Ned Ward relates his visit to looking with great contempt from their the Fair:
slit deal thrones, upon the admiring mo“ We ordered the coachman to set us bility gazing in the dirt at our ostentadown at the Hospital-gate, near which we tious heroes, and their most supercilious went into a convenient house to smoke a doxies, who looked as aukward and unpipe, and overlook the follies of the in- gainly in their gorgeous accoutrements, numerable throng, whose impatient de as an alderman's lady in her stiffen-bosires of seeing Merry Andrew's grimaces, died gown upon a lord mayor's festival.”+ had led them ancle deep into filth and nastiness. The first objects, when we At the Fair of 1701, there was exhibitwere seated at the window that lay with ed a tiger which had been taught to pluck in our observation, were the quality of a fowl's feathers from its body. the Fair, strutting round their balconies In the reign of queen Anne the follow in their tinsey robes, and golden leather ing curious bill relates part of the enterbuckskins, expressing such pride in their tainment at one of the shows:buffoonery stateliness, that'I could but “ By her majesty's permission, at reasonably believe they were as much Heatly's booth, over against the Cross elevated with the thought of their fort- Daggers, next to Mr. Miller's booth, night's pageantry, as ever Alexander was with the thought of a new conquest
† Ward's London Spy.
* Old Ballads.
show. As I was debating the matter, maids, masters and 'prentices! This is they advanced towards the front of the not an ark, like Noah's which received
during the time of Bartholomew Fair, will were set straight again. All the secret be presented a little opera, called The I could for iny life discover in the Old Creation of the World new kevived, whole grotesque, was the consistency a with the addition of the glorious battle drift of the piece, which I could never obtained over the French and Spaniards demonstrate to this hour. At last, all the by his grace the duke of Marlborough. childish parade shrunk off the stage by The contents are these, 1. The creation matter and motion, and enter a hoblete of Adam and Eve. 2. The intrigues of hoy of a dance, and Dogget, in old wo Lucifer in the garden of Eden. 3. Adam man's petticoats and red waistcoat, as and Eve driven out of Paradise. 4. Cain like Progue Cock as ever man saw; i: going to plow; Abel driving sheep. 5. would have made a stoic split his lungs, Cain killeth his brother Abel. 6. Abra. if he had seen the temporary harlot sing ham offereth up his son Isaac. 7. Three and weep both at once; a true emblem wise men of the east, guided by a star, of a woman's tears. When these Christ. come and worship Christ. 8. Joseph mas carols were over, enter a wooden and Mary flee away by night upon an ass. horse; now I concluded we should have 9. King Herod's cruelly; his men's spears the ballad of Troy-town, but I was disapladen with children. 10. Rich Dives pointed in the scene, for a dancing-master invites his friends, and orders his porter comes in, begins complimenting the horse, to keep the beggars from his gate. 11. and fetching me three or four rue-bar Poor Lazarus comes a begging at rich with his arm, (as if he would have mortiDives' gate, the dogs lick his sores. 12. fied the ox at one blow,) takes a frolic The good angel and Death contend for upon the back of it, and translates hir, Lazarus's life. 13 Rich Dives is taken self into cavalry at one bound; all I could șick, and dieth; he is buried in great so clap was the patience of the beast
. How. lemnity. 14. Rich Dives in hell, and ever, having played upon him about half Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, seen in a
a quarter, the conqueror was pursued with most glorious object, all in machines de such a clangor from the crusted clutches scending in a throne, guarded with mul- of the mob in the sixpenny place, that for titudes of angels ; with the breaking of five minutes together I was tossed on this the clouds, discovering the palace of the dilemma, that either a man had not fire sun, in double and treble prospects, to senses, or I was no man. The stage was the admiration of all the spectators. Like now overrun with nothing but merry wise several rich and large figures, which andrews and pickle-herrings. This moun dance jiggs, sarabands,anticks,and country tebank scene was removed at last, and I dances, between every act; compleated was full of expectations that the successo, Spendall and Punchinello, with several etan; but, alas, they were balí empirics, other things never exposed. Performed and therefore exeuni omnes." by Matt. Heatly. Vivat Regina."
We learn something of the excesses at A writer in ihe “ Secret Mercury,” of the Fair from "The Observator," of August September 3, having padlocked my poca ness tend to any thing else but the role
Wednesday, 21, 1703 : _« Does this market of lendkets, and trimmed myself with Hudibras of the bodies, souls, and estates of the from head to foot, I set out about six for young men and women of the city away substantial silver for visionary the temptations to destruction? The lotteries, atrical entertainment, I made myself ready to ruin their estates; the drolls, comedies, for the farce ; but I had scarce composed interludes, and farces, to poison their myself, when bolts me into the pit a bully minds, &c. and in the cloisters what veau, &c. The curtain drew, and dis strange medley of lewdness has that place covered a nation of beauish 'machines ; not long since afforded! Lords and ladies their motions were so starched, that i aldermen and their wires, 'squires and began to question whether I had mistaken fiddlers, citizens and rope-dancers, jacko myself, and Dogget's booth for a puppet- puddings and lawyers, mistresses and
so miserably, that I was forced to tune beasts enter this ark, and such as have the my own whistle in romance ere my brains devil's livery on their backs."
An advertisement iu “ The Postman,” cakes, one of which he held up in the air ; of August 19, 1703, by “ Barnes and while the other hand was stuck with an Finley," invites the reader to “ see my easy and fashionable manner into his lady Mary perform such curious steps on bosom. For this singular vendor of conthe dancing-rope,” &c. &c. , Lady Mary fectionary every one made way, and nums noticed in “ Heraclitus Ridens,” No.7. bers followed in his train, shouting after * Look upon the old gentleman; his eyes him, there goes Tiddy Doll!' the name are fired upon my lady Mary: Cupid has by which that reinarkable character was shot him as dead as a robin. Poor Hera- known. He himself did not pass silently clitos! he has cried away all his moisture, through the crowd, but as he went along, and is such a dotard to entertain himself he poured forth a multiplicity of praises with a prospect of what is meat for his of his ware, occasionally enlivened by that betters; wake him out of his lethargy, song which first procured him his name." and tell him the young noblemen and This was at the Fair of the year 1740 senators will take it amiss if a man of his concerning which the same illustrator thus gears makes pretensions to what is more continues: “ The multitude behind was than a match for their youth. Those impelled violently forwards, a broad blaze roguish eyes have brought her more ad- of red light, issuing from a score of Alammirers than ever Jenny Bolton had.” beaux, streamed into the air; several
Lady Mary was the daughter of noble voices were loudly shouting, "room there parents, inhabitants of Florence, who im- for prince George! make way for the mured her in a nunnery; but she acci- prince!' and there was that long sweep dentally saw a merry-andrew, with whom heard to pass over the ground, which inshe formed a clandestine intercourse ; an dicates the approach of a grand and ceelopement followed, and finally, he taught remonious train. Presently the pressure her his infamous tricks, which she exhi- became much greater, the voices louder, bited for his profit, till vice had made her the light stronger, and as the train came his own, as Heraclitus proves. The catas. onward, it might be seen that it consisted, trophe of “the lady Mary” was dreadful: firstly, of a party of yeomen of the guards her husband, impatient of delays or im- clearing the way; then several more of pediments to profit, either permitted or them bearing flambeaux, and flanking the commanded her to exhibit on the rope, procession ; while in the midst of all when her situation required compassionate appeared a tall, fair, and handsome young consideration; she fell never to rise again, man, having something of a plump foreign por to open her eyes on her untimely visage, seemingly about four and thirty infant, which perished in a few minutes years of age, dressed in a ruby-coloured after her.
frock coat, very richly guarded with gold In 1715, Dawks's “News Letter," says, lace, and having his long flowing hair " on Wednesday, Bartholomew Fair began, curiously curled over his forehead and at to which we hear, the greatest number of the sides, and finished with a very large black cattle was brought, that was ever bag and courtly queue behind. The air known. There is one great playhouse of dignity with which he walked, the blue erected in the middle of Smithfield for ribbon, and star and garter with which he the king's players. The booth is the was decorated, the small three-cornered largest that was ever built.” Actors of silk court hat which he wore, whilst all celebrity performed in the Fair at that around him were uncovered; the numetime, and in many succeeding years. rous suite, as well of gentlemen as of
A recent writer, evidently well ac- guards, which marshalled him along, the quainted with the manners of the period, obsequious attention of a short stout perintroduces us to a character mentioned in son, who by his flourishing manner seemed a former sheet. “In the midst of all, the to be a player,-all these particulars inpublic attention was attracted to a tall, dicated that the amiable Frederick, prince well-made, and handsome-looking man, of Wales was visiting Bartholomew Fair who was dressed in a very fashionable by torchlight, and that manager Rich was suit of white, trimmed with gold lace, a introducing his royal guest to all the enlaced ruffled shirt, rolled white silk stock- tertainments of the place. However ings, a white apron, and a large cocked strange this circumstance may appear to hat, formed of gingerbread, fringed and the present generation, yet it is neverthegarnished with Ďutch gold. He carried less strictly true; for about 1740, when on his arm a basket filled with gingerbread the drolls in Smithfield were extended to