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fr tias day frugal, and not spare his friend kind feelings m former times; and why by gift, to show his lore finds not an end should they be unfashionable in our own! Satb the deceased year.

Dr. Drake observes, in "Shakspeare and l'ooles's Esc. PARNASSUS.

his Times," that the ushering in of the new In the volume of “ ELIA," an excellent year, or new year's tide, with rejoicings, paper begins with “ Every man hath two presents, and good wishes, was a custom bruhdass: two days, at least, in every observed, during the 16th century, with rear, which set him upon revolving the great regularity and parade, and was as lapse of time, as it affects his mortal dura- cordially celebrated in the court of the tion. The one is that which in an especial prince as in the cottage of the peasant. mander be termeth his. In the gradual Encyclopedia of Antiquities,” adduces

The Rev.T.D. Fosbroke, in his valuable desuetude of old observances, this custom o solemnizing our proper birthday hath

various authorities to show that congratuszarly passed away, or is left to children, the Romans on this day. The origin, he

lations, presents, and visits were made by o reflect nothing at all about the mat-; bor understand any thing beyond the says, is ascribed to Romulus and Tatius, take and orange. But the birth of a

and that the usual presents were figs and L.E* Fear is of an interest too wide to be dates, covered with leaf-gold, and sent by pretermitted by king or cobbler. No one

clients to patrons, accompanied with a er regarded the First of January with piece of money, which was expended to deference. It is that from which all purchase the statues of deities. He mendue their time, and count upon what is tions an amphora (a jar) which stili exists, 1-4. It is the nativity of our common

with an inscription denoting that it was a

new year's present from the potters to * pf ahl sound of all bells- bells, the Count Caylus a piece of Roman poltery,

their patroness. He also instances from music pighest bordering upon heaven) with an inscription wishing Dost solemon and touching is the peal

a happy wtich rings out the old year. I never

new year to you;" another, where a person bear it without a gathering-up of way medallions, with the laurel leaf, fig, and

wishes it to himself and his sou; and three mind to a concentration of all the images date; one, of Commodus; another, of that have been diffused over the past Victory; and a third, Janus, standing in a twelvemonth ; all I have done or suffered, performed, or neglected in that regretted temple, with an inscription, wishing a happy tune. I begin to know its werth as when

new year to the emperor. New year's gifts a person dies. It takes a personal colour; until they were prohibited by Claudius.

were continued under the Roman emperors boc was it a poetical fight in a contem- Yet in the early ages of the church the porary, when he exclaimed,

Christian emperors received them; nor did "I saw the skirts of the departing year.'

they wholly cease, although condemned

by ecclesiastical councils on account of the "The elders with whom I was brought pagan ceremonies at their presentation. up, were of a character not likely to let The Druids were accustomed on certain slip the sacred observance of any old in- days to cut the sacred misletoe with a Uration, and the ringing out of the old golden knife, in a forest dedicated to the year was kept by them with circumstan- gods, and to distribute its branches with les of peculiar ceremony. In those days much ceremony as new year's gifts among the sound of those midnight chimes, the people. though it seemed to raise hilarity in all The late Rev. John Brand, in his around me, never failed to bring a train “Popular Antiquities” edited by Mr. Ellis of pensive imagery into my fancy. Yet I observes from Bishop Stillingfleet, tha. ben scarce conceived what it meant, or among the Saxons of the North, the fes. 'sought of it as a reckoning that con- tival of the new year was observed with Erned me. Not childhood alone, but the more than ordinary jollity and feasting, young man till thirty, dever feels practi- and by sending new year's gifts to one cally that he is mortal."

another. Mr. Fosbroke notices the couKinging out the old and ringing in the tinuation of the Roman practice during uw year, with “ a merry new year! a the middle ages, and that our kirgs, and happy new year to you !" on new year's the nobility especially, interchanged preday, were greetings that moved sceptred sents. Mr. Ellis quotes Matthew Paris, pide, and laumble labour, to smiles and who appears to show that Henry ill er

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torted new year's gifts; and he cites from most of the peeresses, gave rich gowns a MS. of the public revenue, anno 5, Letticoats, shifts, silk stockings, garters Edward VI. an entry of “ rewards given sweet-bags, doublets, mantles embroidered on new year's day to the king's officers with precious stones, looking-glasses, fans, ard servants in ordinary 1551. 58., and bracelets, caskets studded with jewels, to their servants that present the king's and other costly trinkets. Sir Gilbert majestie with new year's gifts.” An Dethick, garter king at arms, gave a book orange stuck with cloves seems, by refer- of the States in William the Conqueror's ence to Mr. Fosbroke and our early au- time; Absolon, the master of the Savoy, thors, to have been a popular new year's gave a Bible covered with cloth of gold, gift. Mr. Ellis suggests, that the use of garnished with silver gilt, and plates of this present may be ascertained from a the royal arms; the queen's physician remark by old Lupton, that the flavour of presented her with a box of foreign wine is improved, and the wine itself pre- sweetmeats; another physician presented served from mouldiness, by an orange or a pot of green ginger, and a pot of orange lemon stuck with cloves being hung within flowers; her apothecaries gave her a box of the vessel so as not to touch the liquor. lozenges, a box of ginger candy, a box of

Thomas Naogeorgus, in “ The Popish green ginger, and pots of other conserves. Kingdome," a Latin poem written in 1553, Mrs. Blanch a Parry gave her majesty a and Englished by Barnabe Googe, after little gold com fit-box and spoon; Mrs. remarking on days of the old year, urges Morgan gave a box of cherries, and one this recollection :

of apricots. The queen's master cook The next to this is Newe yeares day

and her serjeant of the pastıy, presented whereon to every frende,

her with various confectionary and preThey costly presents in do bring,

serves. Putrino, an Italian, gave her iwo and Newe yeares giftes do sende, pictures ; Ambrose Lupo gave her a box of These giftes the husband gives his wife, lute strings, and a glass of sweet water, and father eke the childe,

each of three other Italians presented her And maister on his men bestowes

with a pair of sweet gloves; a cutler the like, with favour milde.

gave her a meat knife having a fan haft Honest old Latimer, instead of present- of bone, with a conceit in it; Jeromy ing Henry VIII. with a purse of gold, as Bassano gave two drinking glasses; and was customary, for a new year's gift, put Smyth, the dustman, presented her mainto the king's hand a New Testament, jesty with two bolts of cambrick. Some of with a leaf conspicuously doubled down these gifts to Elizabeth call to recoilection at Hebrews xiii

. 4, which, on reference, the tempting articles which Autolycus, in will be found to have been worthy of all the “Winter's Tale,” invites the country acceptation, though not perhaps well ac- girls to buy : he enters singing, cepted. Dr. Drake is of opinion that the wardrobe and jewellery of queen Elizabeth

Lawn, as white as driven snow; were principally supported by these an

Cypress, black as e'er was crow; nual contributions on new year's day. He

Glores, as sweet as damask roses

Masks for faces, and for noses ; cites lists of the new year's gifts presented

Bugle bracelet, necklace-amber, to her, from the original rolls published in Perfume for a lady's chamber ; her Progresses by Mr. Nichols; and from

Golden quoifs, and stomachers, these it appears that the greatest part, if For my lads to give their dears ; not all the peers and peeresses of the Pins, and poking-sticks of steel, realm, all the bishops, the chief officers of What naids lack from head to heel : state, and several of the queen's house Come, buy of me, come: come buy, coine hold servants, even down to her apothe

buy; caries, master cook, serjeant of the pastry,

Buy, lads, or else your lasses cry, &c. gave new year's gifts to her majesty;

Come, buy, &c. consisting, in general, either of a sum of Dr. Drake says, that though Elizabeth money, or jewels, trinkets, wearing appa- made returns to the new year's gifts, in rel, &c. The largest sum given by any plate and other articles, yet she took su. of the temporal lords was 201.; but the hicient care that the balance should be archbishop of Canterbury gave 401., the her own favour. archbishop of York 301., and the other No. 4982, in the Catalogue for 1824, 01 spiritual lords 201. and 10l.; many of Mr. Rodd, of Great Newport-street, is a the temporal lords and great officers, and roll of vellum, ten feet long, containing the

ses year's gifts from king James I. to the sent to Sir Simon Steward." lle compesias ubose names are therein mention- Zences it merrily, and goes on to call it do the 1st of January 1605, with the

a jolly Dew year's gifts that his majesty received Verse, crown'd with ivy and with holly'; the same dev; the roll is signed by James That tells of winter's tales and mirth, damself and certain officers of his house- That inilk-maids make about the hearth ; old.

Of Christmas' sports, the wassail bowl, la a "Banquet of Jests, 1634," 12mo. That tost-up after fox-i' th' hole; cbre is a pleasant story of Arehee, the of blind-ınan-buff

, and of the care og's pester, who, having fooled many, Tha. young men have to shoe the mare; a fooled himsell

. Coming to a noble Of twelfth-tide cakes, of pease and beans, Lin, upon Dew year's day, to bid him Of crackling laurel, which fore-sounds

ye make those merry scenes ; pod-morrow, Archee received twenty A plenteous harvest to your grounds ucces of gold; but, covetously desiring of those, and such like things, for shift, sure, be shook them in his hand, and said We send, instead of New Year's Gift. they were too light. The donor answered: Read then, and when your faces shine

ipibee, Archee, let me see them again, With buxom meat and cap'ring wine Se there is one amongst them I would be Remember us in cups full crown'd le to part with:” Archee, expecting the And let our city-health go round. 5.3 to be increased, returned the pieces Then, as ye sit about your embers, to his lordship; who put them in his Call not to mind the fied Decembers , preset with this remark, “ I once gave But think on these, that are t'appear Soubky into a fool's hand, who had not the And to the bagpipes all address

As daughters to the instant year; I to keep it." Pins were acceptable new year's gifts And thus throughout, with Christmas p.ays,

Till sleep take place of weariness, tolle ladies, instead of the wooden skew- Frolick the full twelve holidays. e which they used till the end of the **th century. Sometimes they re

Mr. Ellis, in a note on Brand, intice Cened a composition in money: and hence duces a poetical new year's gift in Latin, alswances for their separate use is still from the stern Buchanan to ihe unhappy nonated “ pin-money."

Mary of Scotland. (; tres were customary new year's

“ New year's gifts,” says Dr. Drake 7. They were more expensive than “were given and received, with the mutual

our times, and occasionally a money expression of good wishes, and particularly otpant was tendered instead: this was

that of a happy new year. The complido slove-money.” Sir Thomas More, ment was sometimes paid at each other's

od chancellor, decreed in favour of doors in the form of a song; but more ge. a Mrr Croaker against the lord Arundel. nerally, especially in the north of EngO the following new year's day, in land and in Scotland, the house was entisen of her gratitude, she presented sir tered very early in the morning, by some Toms with a pair of gloves, containing young men and maidens selected for the fatty anzels. “It would be against good purpose, who presented the spiced bowl, masters," said the chancellor, to forsake and hailed you with the gratulations of 2 Sentlewoman's new year's gift, and I the season.” To this may be added, that rept the gloves; their lining you will it was formerly the custom in Scotland to be seased otherwise to bestow."

send new year's gifts on new year's Mr. Brand relates from a curious MS. eve; and on new year's day to wish in the British Museum, of the date of each other a happy new year, and ask for litr, that the boys of Eton school used a new year's gift. There is a citation in on this day to play for little new year's Brand, from the “ Statistical Account of Its before and after supper; and also Scotland,” concerning new year's gifts to to make rerses, which they presented to servant maids by their masters; and it Be prorost and masters, and to each other: mentions that “there is a large stone, 28w year's gifts of verses, however, were about nine or ten feet higli, and four sot peculiar to schoolboys. A poet, the broad, placed upright in a plain, in the beauties of whose poetry are justly re- (Orkney) isle of North Ronaldshay; but marked to be “ of a kind which time has no tradition is preserved concerning it,

tendency rather to hallow than to in- whether erected in memory of any signa! jare," Robert Herrick, presents us, in his event, or for the purpose of administering Hesperides, with " a New Year's Gift justice, or for religious worship. The

factured at the royal establishment in the good year. In the hilarity of the season neighbourhood of Versailles during the let him not forget that to the needy it i3 preceding year.

a season of discomfort. Undoubtedly, new year's gifts originated in heathen observances, and were

There is a satisfaction grossly abused in after ages; yet latterly

In doing a good action : they became a rational and pleasant mode and he who devises liberal things will of conveying our gentle dispositions to- find his liberality return to him in a ful! wards those we esteein. Mr. Audley, in tide of happiness. An economist can his compendious and useful “ Companion afford to be generous. “ Give me neither to the Almanack," says, with truth, that poverty nor riches," prayed the wise man. they are innocent, if not praiseworthy; To him who is neither encumbered by and he quotes this amiable sentiment from wealth, nor dispirited by indigence, the Bourne: "If I send a new year's gift stores of enjoyment are unlocked. to my friend, it shall be a token of my

He who holds fast the Golden Mean, friendship; if to my benefactor, a token of my gratitude; if to the poor, which at

And lives contentedly between

The little and the great, this season must never be forgot, it shall

Feels not the wants that pinch the poor, be to make their hearts sing for joy, and

Nor plagues that haunt the rich man's door give praise and adoration to the Giver of

Embitt'ring all his state. all good gifts.” The Jews on the first day of their new year give sumptuous enter

The tallest pines feel most the pow's tainments, and joyfully wish each other

Of wintry blasts; the loftiest tow's

Comes heaviest to the ground; a happy new year.” This salutation

The bolts that spare the mountain's side is not yet obsolete even with us; but the

His cloud.capt eminence divide, new year's gift seldom arrives, except to And spread the ruin round. honest rustics from their equals; it is scarcely remembered with a view to its

The well-inform’d philosopher use but by young persons, who, “unvexed

Rejoices with a wholesome fear,

And hopes, in spite of pain ; with all the cares of gain,” have read or

If Winter bellow from the North, heard tell of such things, and who, with

Soon the sweet Spring comes dancing forth innocent hearts, feeling the kindness of And Nature laughs again. the sentiment, keep up the good old cus

If hindrances obstruct thy way, tom among one another, till mixture with the world, and “ long experience, makes

Thy magnanimity display, them sage," and sordid.

And let thy strength be seen ;

But oh! if fortune fill thy sail New year's day in London is not ob With more than a propitious gale, served by any public festivity ; but little Take half thy canvass iu. social dining parties are frequently formed

Cowper. amongst friends; and convivial persons

CHRONOLOGY. may be found at taverns, and in publicans' parlours, regaling on the occasion. Dr 1308. On the 1st of January in this Forster relates, in his “ Perennial Calen- year, William Tell, the Swiss patriot, as, dar,” that many people make a point to sociated himself on this day with a band wear some new clothes on this day, and of his countrymen, against the tyranny of esteem the omission as unlucky the their oppressors. For upwards of three practice, however, from such motives, centuries the opposition was carried on, must obviously be confined to the unin- and terminated by the treaty of Westformed. The only open demonstration phalia in 1648, declaring the independof joy in the metropolis, is the ringing of ence of Switzerland. merry peals from the belfries of the nu 1651. On the 1st of January Charles II. inerous steeples, late on the eve of the was crowned at Scone king of the Scots new year, and until after the chimes of Charles, when a child, was weak in the the clock have sounded its last hour. legs, and ordered to wear steel - boots.

On new year's day the man of business Their weight so annoyed him that he opens new account-books. “A good be. pined till recreation became labour. An ginning makes a good ending." Let every old rocker took off the steel-boots, and man open an account to himself; and concealed them; promising the countess to begin the new year that he may expect of Dorset, who was Charles's governess, to say at its termination-it has been a that she would take any blame for the act

so herself. Soon afterwards the king, in. It is very cold this morning, is it Charles I., coming into the nursery, and not?'--' Very cold, sir.'— Very cold seeing his boy's legs without the boots, indeed, isn't it?'- Very cold indecd, argniy demandel who had done it? “ It sir.'— More than usually so, isn't it, ras 1, sir," said the rocker, “ who had even for this weather?' (Here the serthe honour, some thirty years since, to al- vant's wit and good nature are put to a iend on your highness, in your infancy, considerable test, and the inquirer lies on wberi gor had the same infirmity where- thorns for the answer.) •Why, Sir ... with now the prince, your very own son . . I think it is.' (Good creature! There us troubled; and then the lady Cary, is not a better, or more truth-telling ser(afterwards countess of Monmouth) com vant going.) I must rise, however manded your steel-boots to be taken off, Get me some warm water.'-Ilere comes sho, blessed be God, since have gathered a fine interval between the departure of streogth, and arrived at a good stature.” the servant and the arrival of the hot Ciare, chaplain to Charles II., at the time water; during which, of course, it is of the affair happened, related this anecdote 'no use to get up. The hot water to old Fuller, who in 1660, contemplating comes. 'Is it quite hot ?'— Yes, sir.' " the restoration," tells the story, and – Perhaps too hot for shaving: I must ocantly, exclaims, “ the nation is too wait a little ? —No, sir; il will just do.' cobie, when his majesty shall return from (There is an over-nice propriety someforeign parts, to inipose any other steel times, an officious zeal of virtue, a little boots upon him, than the observing the troublesome.) « Oh — the shirt — you kaws of the land, which are his own stock- must air my clean shirt :-linen gets very mazs, that so with joy and comfort he may damp this weather.'— Yes, sir. Here enter on what was his own inheritance." another delicious five minutes. A knock The pation forgot the“ steel-boots," and at the door. Oh, the shirt—very well. Charles forgot the “ stockings."

My stockings—I think the stockings had 1801. January 1. The Union of Great beiter be aired too.'— Very well, sir.' Britain with Ireland commenced accord- —llere another interval. At length every ing to act of parliament, and the event thing is ready, except myself I now was solemnized by the hoisting of a cannot help thinking a good deal who new royal flag on the Tower of London, can ?—upon the unnecessary and villainaccompanied by the firing of guns there ous custom of shaving; it is a thing so and in St. James's Park. On the 3d the unmanly (here I nestle closer)-so effeking received the great seal of Great minate, (here I recoil from an unlucky step Britain from the lord chancellor, and into the colder part of the bed.)—No wonezusing it to be defaced, presented to him der, that the queen of France took par! a new great seal for the United Kingdom. with the rebels against that degenerate On the same day, January 1st, 1801, king, her husband, who first affronted her Piazzi, the astronomer at Palermo, dis- sinooth visage with a face like her own. covered a new primary planet, making an The emperor Julian never showed the eleventh of that order: he called it Ceres, luxuriancy of his genius to better advanfrom the goddess of that name, who was tage than in reviving the flowing beard. highly esteerned by the ancients of Sicily. Look at cardinal Bembo's picture-at

Michael Angelo's—at Titian's—at Shak speare's—at Fletcher's—at Spenser'smal

Chaucer's-at Alfred's—at Plato's. I L'sually at this period the rigour of cold could name a great man for every tick of is severely felt. The indisposition of lie-a- my watch. Look at the Turks, a grave beds to face its severity is pleasantly pic- and otiose people-Think of Haroun A) tured by Mr.Leigh Hunt, in a paper in the Raschid and Bed-ridden Ilassan—Think Indicator. He imagines one of those of Wortley Montague, the worthy son of persons to express himself in these terms: his mother, a man above the prejudice of

* On opening my eyes, the first thing his time-Look at the Persian gentlemen, that meets them is my own breath rolling whom one is ashamed of meeting about forth, as if in the open air, like smoke out the suburbs, their dress and appearance of a cottage-chimney. Think of this are so much finer than our own—Lastly, symptomn. Then I turn my eyes side- think of the razor itself-how totally opways and see the window all frozen over. posed to every sensation of bed—how Think of that. Then the servant comes cold, how ecigy, how hard I how utterly

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