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acres Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount capital capitalist causes circulating capital circumstances competition condition consequence considerable consumed consumption corn laws cottier cultivation custom degree demand diminished division of labour duction effect employment England English equal exertion exist expense extent farmer farms favourable fixed France funds greater habits human hundred quarters idle class improvement increase individual industry interest Ireland kind labouring class land landlord less limited mankind manufacture manure marriage materials means ment metayer mode nature necessary objects obtained occupation operations paid peasant properties peasant proprietors peasantry permanent persons political economy Poor Law population portion possession present principle productive labourers profit proportion qu'il quantity rate of profit remuneration render rent require saving Sismondi skill society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus tenant things tion Tuscany unless unproductive wages wealth whole
Сторінка 244 - It is not so with the Distribution of Wealth. That is a matter of human institution solely. The things once there, mankind, individually or collectively, can do with them as they like.
Сторінка 461 - ... first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and, fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them.
Сторінка 153 - This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another ; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Сторінка 292 - This is partly intelligible, if we consider that only through the principle of competition has political economy any pretension to the character of a science.
Сторінка 70 - The distinction, then, between Capital and Not-capital, does not lie in the kind of commodities, but in the mind of the capitalist — in his will to employ them for one purpose rather than another ; and all property, however ill adapted in itself for the use of labourers, is a part of capital, so soon as it, or the value to be received from it, is set apart for productive employment. The sum of all the values so destined by their respective possessors, composes the capital of the country.
Сторінка v - Nations" is in many parts obsolete, and in all, imperfect. Political Economy, properly so called, has grown up almost from infancy since the time of Adam Smith : and the philosophy of society, from which practically that eminent thinker never separated his more peculiar theme, though still in a very early stage of its progress, has advanced many steps beyond the point at which he left it. No attempt, however, has yet been made to combine his practical mode of treating his subject with the increased...
Сторінка 321 - The peasants f are the great and ever-present objects of country life. They are the great population of the country, because they themselves are the possessors. This country is, in fact, for the most part, in the hands of the people. It is parcelled out among the multitude. . . , The peasants are not, as with us, for the most part, totally cut off from property in the soil they cultivate, totally dependent on the labor afforded by others— they are themselves the proprietors.
Сторінка 462 - A mason or bricklayer, on the contrary, can work neither in hard frost nor in foul weather, and his employment at all other times depends upon the occasional calls of his customers. He is liable, in consequence, to be frequently without any. What he earns, therefore, while he is employed, must not only maintain him while he is idle, but make him some compensation for those anxious and desponding moments which the thought of so precarious a situation must sometimes occasion.