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SUMMARY. xxiii

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sonality in virtue of which man is man. The truly
educated man, in whatever condition of life he may
be, is he who has learnt to know his duty, and all
whose powers have been disciplined and developed
for its accomplishment .... 132

This is the ideal of virile perfection. It is never entirely
reached—that proceeds from the nature of the ideal
—but in proportion as any man approximates to it,
is he educated ...... 133

The fashionable doctrine of Education leaves out the ethical element, the discipline of the will, altogether. Its highest aim is intellectual culture, which it regards as a quickening, organizing, regenerating power sufficient to transform individual and national existence ...... 133

This is an irrational superstition. Intellectual cultuic, knowledge, however wide and exact, of arts, literature, or physical science, cannot affect character; cannot convert the will from bad to good . . . 134

Mere instruction of the intellect leaves a man ethically where it found him, unless, indeed, its effect is to illustrate the Apostolic dictum "knowledge puffeth up" 134

If ever there was a safe truth it is this. But it is a truth by no means generally apprehended. Intellectual instruction is expected to produce moral regeneration . .... 135

The expectation doubtless arises directly from the Utilitarian philosophy, which resolves morality into selfinterest, and leads us to expect that men will be virtuous out of regard for their own interests, if the eyes of their understanding are sufficiently enlightened to discern what their true interests arc . 13C

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The Utilitarian philosophy de-ethicises education, us it de-cthicises everything else, by banishing the aboriginal moral idea ..... 137

In this age, when that philosophy, in various forms, is so widely potential, it is most necessary to insist upon the true conception of Education . . . 138

Universal Education is the natural, the legitimate consequence of democracy. But if it is to iit the masses for the exercise of political power, it must be Education in the true and complete sense above set forth . . . . . . .138

Right will, as well as right knowledge, is an essential qualification for the duo discharge of the trust involved in the possession of any share of political power. Ethical Education is, from the political point of view, absolutely necessary ..... 139

And this brings us face to face with ono of the most burning questions of the day—the Education Question. How can Education, in the true sense of the word, be ensured ?..... 140

That the State has, in its own interests, a right to endeavour that such Education be assured, is certain. As certain is it that the Education of children is not primarily a function of the State. It is the duty and prerogative of the father . . . 141

Importance, in an age of dissolvent individualism, of insisting upon the sacredness and inviolability of paternal rights ..... 141

The duty and prerogatives of the father are unquestionable in theory. But how if in practice he neglect those duties and make no account of those preSUMMARY.

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rogatives? And that this happens in numberless
cases is matter of common experience. Nor can it
be otherwise with the abject poverty and general
social degradation of vast sections of the population , 141

The State must interfere to supply the father's shortcomings in such cases, and must undertake the Education of children who, without its intervention, would receive no Education at all . . . 142

But how can the State supply the moral teaching needful for the culture of the will? No instrument of ethical culture is possible for the mass of mankind but religion . 142

And the State, in our day, has no religion. How is it possible for the Agnostic State, while maintaining an attitude of religious neutrality, to obtain the aid of religion as an instrument of ethical culture? . 143

In the Education given in the Board Schools this difficulty has been overcome by the invention of a new variety of religion, which is Theism plus a certain amount of Christian sentiment ..... 145

Such religious teaching is doubtless better than none at all. But the State has no right to force it, directly or—which is much more likely—indirectly, on children whose parents prefer more definite training in faith and morals .... 146

The Denominational system is the only system possible, in this country, which is consistent with the father's rights, which respects his religious liberty . 147

But those rights and that liberty are not absolute: they are conditioned by the rights and needs of the social organism. The same principles which warrant th«

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State in undertaking the Education of children who
otherwise would not be educated at all, also wan-ant
it in requiring that the intellectual instruction of tho
nation shall come up to a certain standard . . 147

The proposition that if Education be compulsory it ought
to be free, is untenable. But if—as is certainly tho
case—vast numbers of parents, through penury, are
unable to do their duty in the matter of educating
their children, the State ought to enable them to do
it, in the paramount interests of the social organism . 147

And in practice it will be found that Free Education, that is Education paid for by the State, is the best solution of the many difficulties attending the subject . 14S

The right of the State to satisfy itself as to the quality of the Education given does not primarily arise from tho State's paying for it. The true reason for the public control of Education is that it is a matter of vital importance to the public interests . . . 148

Practically, different methods of Education are most desirable as factors of individuality. Education should not be a State monopoly. Tho replacement of the Denominational system by what is called "a National System" would be a deadly blow to liberty 149 SUM MART. xxvii

CHAPTER VI.

Woman's Eights.

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The Shibboleth of Woman's Rights is well adapted to impress the general mind. But if specious, it is also vague ....... 151

One wants to know what the rights claimed for woman

are and how they arise .... 151

It will be well to turn for information on this subject to the three writers who appear to be looked upon as most authoritative by the advocates of Woman's Rights: Miss Wollstonecraft, Mr. J. S. Mill, and Mr. Karl Pearson ..... 152

Miss Wollstonecraft, basing her argument upon the proposition that "the prevailing opinion of a sexual character is erroneous," insists that the sexes ought to be educated together, and claims for women admission to all, or well nigh all, the callings and occupations of men, and a direct share in legislation . 152

Mr. Mill contends that "the principle which regulates the existing relations between the two sexes—the legal subordination of the one to the other—is wrong in itself," and that it ought to be replaced by "a principle of perfect equality, admitting no power or privilege on the one side and no disability on tho other" . . . . . . .100

Mr. Karl Pearson is of opinion that "all assumption of a distinction between woman and man which reaches beyond the physical fact of child-bearing is absolutely unwarranted ;" declares that woman is "entitled to

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