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Universal suffrage may be regarded as the expression of this truth in highly advanced states of civilization ....... 99

But in highly advanced states only: institutions need to be radically different according to the stage of advancement reached by a people . . .100

Absurd consequences of the forgetfuluess of that truth . 101

There is no immutably best form of polity: "the best government is that which teaches men to govern themselves" . . . . . .102

The true function of representative institutions is to assure to the community the permanence and inviolability of the rational •will, and to educate the people at large in the consciousness of Right . 103

But if the proposition of The People's Gospel, that "every man should count for one," is true, its other proposition, that "no man should count for more than one," is false. It is a direct infringement of the most sacred rights of human personality: some men should count for many more than one: there is a fundamental democracy in human society: there is also a necessary hierarchy .... 103

In so far as men are, in truth, equal, they are entitled to the same share of political power: in so far as they are, in truth, unequal, they are entitled to unequal shares of political power: justice is in a mean: it lies in the combination of equal and unequal rights . 104

Then are elements in the body politic far more important than mere numbers. Civilization is bound up with "the classes," and with their tenure of their proper place and special function in the social organism . 107 SUMMARY. xix

CHAPTER IV.

PUBLIC OPINION.

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One consequence of the gravitation of power to tho multitude, in these days, is the vast importance of Public Opinion . . . . .108

It has become a Shibboleth which all men are expected to pronounce with due reverence, under pain of social reprobation . . . . . .110

Thoughtful men of different schools—Mr. Carlyle and Mr. Mill for example—have expressed impatience of its yoke . . . . . .110

The truth is that while Public Opinion, in its highest sense, is entitled to our veneration and obedience, what is commonly presented to us as Public Opinion is not so entitled . . . . .112

What is commonly presented to us as Public Opinion is the accord of a number of private opinions upon a matter of common interest . . . .112

The vast majority of these private opinions are comparatively unwise. Is there any reason for supposing that from a large number of them, a wise Public Opinion can be formed? . . . .112

Let us look at the process of its formation, as daily exhibited in this country. On any question of current politics two diametrically opposed views are certain to be at once taken: one by the party in office and desirous not to go out, the other by the party out of oftlce and desirous to come in. The

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object of each party is to win an election, und for this
end they endeavour to "educate Public Opinion," as
the phrase is . . . . . .113

The chief instruments of such education arc public meet-
ings and the newspapers . . . .114

But the object with -which people usually attend public meetings is to obtain a confirmation of their own views: and the end of the orators who harangue there is not to teach, but to flatter and persuade . 114

And the newspaper press is, with few exceptions, avowedly given over to reckless partisanship, hardly any political question being candidly discussed on its merits ....... 115

No one who will clear his mind of cant can fail to comprehend, and to sympathize with, the refusal of intelligent persons to revere a Public Opinion thus generated ...... 117

On the other hand Public Opinion which is really such, which is the natural expression of the communis sensus of a people at large upon a question of general import, and not the manufactured dictate of party spirit, certainly does possess a claim upon our respect ....... 117

But the true and highest ideal of Public Opinion is the

public conscience accompanying and ruling events . 119

Conscience in the individual is the voice of his organic tmity, the bond of which is ethical, vindicating its claims against the exorbitant and illegitimate demands of this or that component part of his nature which tend to its dissolution and destruction . 119 SUMMARY. xxi

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The office of the public conscience is similar: it should

express the moral sense of the social organism . 121

Public Opinion, when it is the expression of the national

conscience, may be called Vox Dei . . . 121

In medieval times it was the function of the clergy to be

the organ of Public Opinion in this higher sense . 122

This office is now undertaken by the newspapers . . 123

Hence the great importance of a truer conception, a deeper appreciation of the ethical responsibilities, the moral mission of journalism 124

CHAPTER V.

EDUCATION.

Liberty, Popular Government, and the power of Public
Opinion, if they are to prove a blessing and not a
curse, require the elevation of the people generally
in "opinions, qualities, and tone of mind" . . 126

The truth expressed in Lord Sherbrooke's dictum, "We
must educate onr masters," is generally recognized.
The age prides itself on its educational activity.
Education is one of its favourite Shibboleths. . 127

Such zeal for Education is excellent. But it is often a
zeal not according to knowledge. It is largely ex-
pended on what is not Education at all, but a mere
counterfeit of it . . . . . 127

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What is very generally meant when Education is spoken of, is the instruction, in greater or less degree, of the intellect. But mere instruction is not sufficient even to form the intellect; still less sufficient is it to form the character. And the formation of the character is the true end of Education ..... 127

Education means the right development of the human powers and faculties; its function is "to prepare us for complete living" ..... 129

"Mens sana in corpore sano" sums it up, and that

involves physical, intellectual, and moral culture . 129

But all ideals hold of the moral ideal. That embraces our entire being: other ideals only segments of it. The supreme end of educating a child is to educe his personality which is essentially ethical: to make a man of him. Apart from that, bodily exercise profiteth little: the exercise of the intellect not much more ....... 130

Reverence is the Alpha and Omega of Education: reverence for what is highest above us and highest within us 131

A child's strongest motive is desire for esteem: the wish to bo thought well of by those who naturally command his reverence ..... 131

Their judgment mirrors him to himself, reflecting his own worthiness or unworthiness. The note of virile maturity is that the rule and measure of self-respect are transferred from without to within: from tho praise of man to the testimony of conscience . . 132

The culture of the will is by far the most important part of Education, for will is of the essence of the per

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