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in the proper sense of the word, that is they are neces-
sary necessitate conseqvcnli as proceeding from the
Supreme Reason; and divine . . . .55

And therefore do they rule us, nor is there liberty for
man, in the physical order, save in obedience to them.
"Natura non nisi parendo vincitur" . . .57

And so, in the ethical order, there is no true Liberty for

man save in obedience to the moral law . . 58

Which is a Divine Order ruling through the universe . 59

Precisely in proportion as man obeys it, is he master of

himself and free . . . . .59

Nor, in the public order, is Liberty found in lawlessness.

Human society is an organism with its proper laws . 01

The truth has been largely obliterated from the popular

mind by a spurious individualism . . .61

Which is due to two causes: first, "the trituration of the groups which once lived with an independent life," as society, in the Western world, has moved from status to contract; and secondly, the wide influence of Rousseau's political teaching as applied by his Jacobin disciples . . . . .61

"Every individual is free to think what he likes; his freedom to do and say what he likes shall be as little as possible infringed by law; and after all, this is no real infringement, for he is his own lawgiver, free as one of the sovereign people to vote as he likes: and so, in obeying the law, he must bo taken to obey only himself, and to be as free as before:"—such is the political liberty wherewith the new Liberalism, makes free "the citizen," as its cant phrase is . 62


This is a very spurious kind of political Liberty. The individual is an individuum vagum, and rights valid only in the social organism, cannot be predicated of him out of it. Nor has any man a right to do what he likes, a doctrine which means the sovereignty of the passions . . . . . .63

Liberty does not consist in thinking, or in saying, or

in doing what we like, or in voting ever so often . 63

Even thought does not possess unbounded independence:

it is governed by necessary laws . . .64

Nor is the limitation by law of the external manifestations of our personality, in speech or deed, an infringement of our libei'ty, if the law be just. The true idea of law is the organic totality of the external conditions of a life according to reason: and only the will that is determined by reason is free . . .65

The State is not a power external and hostilo to the governed, restrictive of their liberty and tolerated by them merely for the protection of person and property: the true and worthy conception of the State is that it is the nation in its corporate capacity and the tutor of individual freedom: its sovereignty, rightly conceived, is the domination of the rational will over the animal passions . . . . .66

And its business is to maintain the conditions without which a free exercise of the human faculties is impossible . . . . . .67

The popular conception of Liberty, as a man's freedom to do what he likes, witnesses, however, to the truth that the State should assure to each, all the independence he can possibly enjoy, provided he docs



not prejudice the like independence of others, or the welfare of the social organism . . . .67

Such Liberty, not in itself a positive good, is the condition of the highest good, which is moral Liberty . 68

This is the conception of freedom written legibly on every page of English constitutional history and realized by our forefathers, who, without troubling themselves with metaphysical discussions, wrought out "the liberty of the subject" . .GO

The phrase is felicitous, as indicating that the true condition of individual freedom is subjection to law . 70

The laws of the political, as of the moral and physical order, are the expression of Divine Reason, which man's reason may, more or less perfectly, apprehend, and his will obey . . . . .70

And it is because they are divine that our obedience is

due to them . . . . . .70

The stupidest of superstitions is that political Liberty is the necessary product of any constitutional machinery, and in particular, that it is the inevitable result of government by numbers . . . .70

It is to the ever-deepening apprehension of "the moral laws of nature and of nations" that we should look for the growth of true freedom . . .72 CHAPTER III.



The superstition that liberty is the inevitable result of government by numbers has embodied itself in the Shibboleth of The People . . . .7-1

The People's Gospel: "Everyman to count for one and

no man for more than one" . . . .75

It is an a priori doctrine postulating that each individual "citizen" is entitled to an equal share of the national sovereignty, and attributing supreme authority to the majority of "citizens," that is to the representatives of the majority . . . .76

We have derived it mainly from the teachings of JeanJacques Rousseau, although modified by the conditions of the time . . . . . .76

Rousseau's doctrine of the natural goodness, rationality, equality, and sovereignty of the individual, and of the social contract were not original. His originality lay in his passionate enthusiasm . . .77

In 1789 his now gospel reigned paramount in the general mind of France. "To make the constitution " meant, for the Revolutionary legislators, to translate hie doctrines into institutions . . . .81

His doctrine as to the individual is wholly untenable,

being opposed to the most manifest facts . . 81

The same must be said of his doctrine as to the State, which is not a conventional institution, but the outcome of an order of necessary truths quite independent, in themselves, of human volition . . .84 SUMMARY. xvii


Neither Rousseau nor Locke, in whose mechanical philosophy the political ideas of Rousseau are contained and justified, realized the organic nature of society, nor its ethical conditions, nor the real nature and limits of human authority . . .85

So much as to the theoretical position of The People's

Gospel. What are its actual fruits? . . .87

In France, after a century of striving to realize its ideal of man and society, all the bonds of thought are loosened, all classes are in antagonism, all interests arc jarring and antagonistic . . . .87

In the United States of America it has ostracised men of light and leading, deeply degraded public life, and made republican government little better than a form ....... 91

Such are the fruits of The People's Gospel, found in every country precisely in proportion as it has been received . . . . . .95

And it has been received very widely: the inspiration of the Liberalism of Continental Europe, and of the dominant school of Radicalism in this country is derived from it ..... 95

It is by no accident, but by a law issuing from the nature

of things, that it produces these results . . 97

But however false the theoretical positions of the People's Gospel, and however fonl its fruits, it veils the truth that all men arc equal as persons, and are entitled, in virtue of that equality, to the same share of political power. The proposition that every man should count for one is true . . . . .98

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