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its design as a contribution to that task, it will not have been written in vain. The special disease of the body politic in this age is a spurious, mechanical individualism which ignores or denies that moral and spiritual force wherein consists the organic unity of men and of nations of men: "das geistige Band " we may call it, in Goethe's words. Right, according to the materialistic Revolutionary doctrine, which has so largely mixed itself with

[life, means merely thinking of oneself, living for oneself. The doctrine is no less absurd than ignoble. It is anarchy, in the proper sense of the word. Right,

1 as the Latin term * witnesses, is the bond which knits mankind into society. "Commonwealths," Burke excellently observes, "are not physical but moral essences." There are for nations, as for the individuals composing them, necessary conditions of existence, irreversible laws of life. And those laws, those conditions are ethical. They belong to an order not made by man but issuing from the nature of things. The art of politics, properly understood, consists in apprehending and conforming to "the moral laws of nature and of nations."

This spurious and mechanical individualism we must strenuously combat. And it is best combated by opposing to it the true idea of the individual as an ethical agent in an ethical organism. Nothing is falser than the notion that the history of peoples vn. THE BEST HOPE FOR THE FUTURE. 243

9 Jus (jungere).

is the result of merely external causes, or of blind force, or of occult destiny. There is an inner necessity determining the course of national events. That necessity issues from national character. And national character is really the outcome of the characters of the men and women composing the nation. The primary source therefore of every real reform, of all authentic advance in a people must be something which acts directly and powerfully on the individual: something which determines him from within, not from without: something moral, not mechanical: something psychical, not physical. It is in the supersensuous, the transcendental, the spiritual that the deep foundations of character, individual and national, are laid. The best hops for the future of our country seems to me to lie in men who have grasped the ethical significance of the facts of life: yes, and of the fact of death too.

"There is no danger to a man that knows
What life and death is: there's not any law
Exceeds Lis knowledge: neither is it lawful
That he should stoop to any other law:
He goes before them and commands them all,
That to himself is a law rational."

INDEX.

Abstract ideas and principles ....
Adulteration, the art of .

as "a form of competition"

how it should be punished
Advertisement, tho art of ....

"Agreeable feeling," not the fount of morality
"Almighty Dollar," The ....

Animals, the lower, are not mere things .
Aquinas, St. Thomas, on the subjection of woman

on the right of private property
Aristotle, on man's special characteristic

on diversity in an organism

his view of virtue .....

Army, the British, and the law of Supply and
Demand ......

Attraction, the supreme law of
Augustine, St., on the fall of Rome

on the order of nature ....

Bacon, Lord, on conquests over nature

Bagehot, on the advantage of representative insti

tutions .......

Bcaconsfield, tho Earl of, his "fancy franchises"

the two nations of his Sybil .
Bentham, on the degradation of animals .
Berryer, on claptrap .....

Board Schools, religious teaching in
"Bosses," in the United States
Bright, Mr., on adulteration ....
Browning, Robert, on progress

PAGE

200-1

210-11

238

238

210

137

95, 137

166

109

222

86

104

129

239
55
34

50

57

72

85

208

106

1

145-6

95

238

3

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Canonists, the, doctrine of, concerning extremo

necessity and the right of private property
Capitalist, the, his functions ....

his freedom ......

his ordinary contention ....

his duty to his workpeople

a colossal, on the people ....
Carlyle, on handcuffs and ballot boxes

on public opinion .....

on "the Dcmerara Nigger "...

on a pig's view of the universe
Cartesian philosophy, the ....

Casuistry, the necessity of ... .

Chasles, on the need for an educated people in an

age of freedom of the press .
Chastity, breach of, more heinous in a woman than
in a man ......

Chamberlain, Mr., on the misery of the very poor

Character, national, what it is

Christianity, its morality, in what sense new .

not coextensive with moral civilization

the most precious elements of our ethical life
derived from or bound up with

and the spiritual claims of woman .

its relation towards the external condition of
mankind ......

various kinds of .....

the greatest peril of .

and personality .....

the greatest benefactor of woman
Civilization, the Materialistic account of

a condition of .....

Civilizations, vanished, their history and lesson
Clarke, Dr., on Sex in Education
Classes, the manufacturing ....

222

192

194

221

223

226

72

110

198

207

78-80

35

126

176-8

208

243

37

38

39
43

45
47
48

49-50

167

26

30

31-34

181

28

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