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SUMMARY. xxxiii

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(b) the universal prevalence of lying in the form of advertisement, and of cheating in the form of adulteration, which is really the main cause of our country's loss of custom, especially with the colonies, and of the depression of her commerce . .210

Fraud upon workers, fraud upon buyers must, by the very nature of things, issue in the destruction of a society which tolerates it. Socialism, Communism, Nihilism are the handwriting upon the wall, portending the destruction of a social order resting on wrong and robbery . . . . .211

Different expressions of the same movement, they mean the negation of country, of history, of liberty, of property, of all that constitutes civilization in the highest sense. Yet Mr. Mill has recorded his opinion that even Communism would be better than "the present state of society with all its suffering and injustices" ....... 213

But is the present state of things or Communism the alternative? Happily, no. For both the rampant individualism of the existing economic order, and the universal slavery with a modicum of pigswash for all, proposed to us under tho names of Communism, Socialism, Nihilism, are open to the same fatal objection: they are all alike founded solely on the greed of human nature: they recognize only the lower self in man, the self of the animal nature and passions, and ignore the rational and spiritual self ..... 214

There is only one remedy for the evils under which society is suffering, and that is in the recognition of the fact that man is an ethical animal, and that in economical relations, as in all relations, he is under

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the moral law. Supply and Demand must be sub-
jected to the eternal rule of Right and Wrong. The
doctrine of the moral responsibilty of man is abso-
lutely necessary to any human system of industrial
science ....... 214

Rights and duties of capital .... 221

Rights and duties of labour .... 225

Labour is, no doubt, the prime source of wealth: but property is accumulated labour. Wages may be taken as the reward of present labour. Interest, profit, rent as the reward of past labour, stored up as capital. Every proprietor who, by machinery or otherwise, renders labour more productive, is entitled to a share of the produce. The question is, What share? What is the just rule of division? The question, though difficult, is not insoluble. And its solution belongs to the province of "Political Economy," as properly understood ..... 228

The State is vitally interested in the well ordering of
economical relations—a truth largely lost sight of
in an age of rampant individualism, when the very
idea of the social organism has grown dim in the
minds of men. The capitalist, who puts his trust in
the notion of absolute individual right, and the
socialist seeking to reduce human society to a
machine, are equally destitute of any true conception
of human solidarity. It has never crossed their
minds that the State is an ethical organism, bound
to maintain the conditions without which a free
exercise of the human faculties is impossible . . 232

The universal and unrestrained operation of the law of
Supply and Demand is fatal to those conditions, and

SUMMARY. xxxv

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issues in the disintegration of society, and in the con-
sequent ruin of each and all. There are, then, cases
in which it is the right and the duty of the State to
restrict, or wholly to set aside, the law of Supply and
Demand. Seven such cases indicated . . 232

The Shibboleths considered in the foregoing pages appear fairly to represent the body of opinion specially characteristic of the time. No doubt, in the vast majority of minds, they exist as mere nebulous notions: as mere symbols in problems which are never worked out. To work them out is the task of philosophy ....... 241

The special disease of the body politic in this age is a spurious, mechanical Individualism which ignores or denies that moral and spiritual force wherein consists the organic unity of men, and of nations of men. This is best combated by opposing to it the true idea of the individual, as an ethical agent in an ethical organism ....... 241

Nothing is falser than the notion that the history of peoples is the result of merely external causes, or of blind force, or of occult destiny. There is an inner necessity determining the course of national events. That necessity issues from national character. And national character is really the outcome of the characters of the men and women composing the

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nation. It is in the superscnsuous, the transcen-
dental, the spiritual, that the deep foundations of
character are laid. The best hope for the future of
our country lies in men who have grasped the ethical
significance of the facta of life: yes, and of the fact
of death too .... . 2-13

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ON SHIBBOLETHS.

CHAPTER I.

PROGRESS.

One of the most striking characteristics of the times in which we live is the influence exercised by Shibboleths. They have always, indeed, played a considerable part in human history. But their power at the present day is far greater than it has ever been: "la phrase," it has been said, "est le tyran de notre siecle." And the reason why this is so, is not far to seek. The great contemporary fact of the public order, in Europe and America, is the domination of the Many. The appeal on all questions, human and divine, is to the opinion cf the masses. But the vast majority of men, and almost all women, are swayed by rhetoric rather than by logic, by the emotions more than by the intellect. "Pray don't speak against claptrap," said Berryer, "I have always succeeded best with it." In truth it is the stock in trade of nisi prins advocates and leader-writing journalists, of elec

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