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TABLE OF OONTENTS.

YIDDISH READING. . . . . . . . . ... ) ; ) י י י י י י י י י י י י י י פּ פ פּ פֿ פ א * * * * אַ 8 אָ פ & 8 ס & 8 8 פּ WII I. The Alphabet. . . . . . . . . . 3 י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י ll. The Consonants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) * * * e e e e o e יי יי פּ פ פּ פּ פֿ פ פּ פֿ פ א א III, The Wowels. . . . . . . . . . ק e & } י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י ......" פּ 8 אַ אַ . . . . WIII IV . Reading of Hebrew Words ... . . . . . . . . . . . .............. Ix W. Table of Wowels, Consonalits, and Syllables............ :C WI. Syllabication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... * ג 9 פ פּ פֿ פ פּCIII xrv ..ר.........VII. Hebrew Script Employed in Writing Yiddish ORTHOGRAPEIY . . . . . . . . . . & - ע ע . . . . . . . . . . . . . י י י י י י י י יי גיי 4 & פֿ פ 8 8 - 4 * * & 8 & 8 8 אַ DIALECTS. . . . . ) )( 8 אָ , O, U C * * 4 ◄פֿ פ & * ) 8 4 ל4 י ) * * & t אַ & t e י י י י י י י י י י י י י י אַ אַ ס אַ ; ; ) א פ . x W ABBREVIATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * * * 4 8 ג אַ א ס פּ פ פּ פֿ פCיWI SPECIAL ExPLANATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'ק, 9 אַ פ פּ פּ פּ * * * * * * * * * י י י י י י י YIDDISH-ENGLISE DICTIONARY . . . .. ) * 8 & 8 9 1-845 . . . . . . . . י י י י י י י י י י י י אָ פּ ADDITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & } 8 8 ) & 8 & & & 846-351 ; פּ פּ פֿ פ ; 8 אַ 8 י י ט 8 אַ ס 4 פ פּ פּ פֿ פ 9 & אַ 8 אַ 352 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י י יCORRECTIONS

YIDDISH READINC.

. THE ALPEIAEET,

81. Yiddish is writtem and printed in Hebrew characters.

8 2. The following are the Hebrew letters and their names:

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8 5. All Hebrew letters are consonants, but when employed in are made to represent vowel-sounds. In Hebrew ע ו ,י א ,Yiddish the vowel-sounds are represented by special signs called uouuel-point8.

In the use of letters for writing Hebrew the Jews are divided The Oriental as well as the Spanish, Portuguese aud Italian Jews employ with slight variations the ,employ a modified י.etc יHebrew square letters; the Jews of Germany Poland Russia cursive alphabet. In writing Yiddish only that cursive alphabet is use8.

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.(8 f th (or. /6 ,ע sound, as b, k, p, t and a soft sound, as

8 4. The hard sound of ת, פ, כ, ב is indicated by a dot within: their soft sound, is marked by the absence of the ;? ת ,p פ , ב ,b ב

.(8 th (orת J פ ,ch כ ,u ב :dot $ 5. The soft sound of כ and פ in Yiddish is freduently indicated by a horizonta" stroke above thern: כ ch, ת פֿ

at the end of words רassume the forms and E פ and כ 6 פָּ only when they are to have their soft sound (ch, f).

WIII

פּoccur only i ע as ו k), and a single) כ hard ,ח (ע) ב Soft .7 8 זhowever, also occurs in words other than Hebrew ,דן .Hebrew words יchrein (horse-radish); but in suchwords it is now regarded a חריין

obsolete.
III. TEIR WOWET,8.

י,(e (in pem ,(ייin fo) 0 ,(יThe Yiddishwowel-sounds are: a (in fa7 .1 $ 6 (in pi74), 44 (in put), ei (in eight), di (in disle), oi (in oil).

Jam פאַן :א The vowel-sounds a and o are represented by .2 8 -he); 4 is represent( יe7 ער :ע dos (that); e is represented by דאָס (pan) ;)shai (synagogue שול :ו for); u is represented by) יfir. פיר :י ed by oi is (י;(faim (fine. פיין (bein (bone ביין :יי et and di are represented by { .)loib (praise לויבּ :וי represented by

יי ,(u) ו ,(i) י At the beginning of words the vowel-letters .3 8 oi) are preceded and at the end of words are 'followed) וי ei, di) and) איידער (under) יu/mte7 אונטער ,(iber (over איבער :for example ;א by ,(2i (she זיא ,(oibem (above אויבען (ailem (to hurry איילען ,(before) יeide7 .(froi (woman. פרויא ,(ud% (new? נייא (flei (fiea. פלייא (du (thou דוא after the above vowels א At the end of words, however the use of. פרויא נייא פלייא ,דוא ,זיא has almost been discarded; thus the words } -פרוי ניי פליי דו זי :are very treduently written

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o;), the) וי or (::) ו are to be followed by (ש) וו oTE 1. Whenא 2:שש וואוול ,(a (whereש וואו :is interposed, to avoid confusion א letter are sometimes (::) ו following (ש) וו well); for the same reason) .(a4% (Sutwalkiש4:ע סובאלק :(ש) ב represented by soft

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after a vowel is not sounded, but it ע or ה NOTE 8. The letter ,(2ez (more מעהר (o'; (flag/ פאָהן :tends to lengthen that vowel .2e (see), &c זעה ,(a4 (restץ רוה ,(early) ;'?/ פריה 84 In addition to the vowel-letters in Yiddish are freduently employed the Hebrew vowel-points, which are: Fatach or - (d), (9omata ,(ei), Cholom or "(oi) יי e), Chirik or .(?) Tsere or) צ or ? (o), Segol or -u) In Yiddish words other than Efe) י u), 9ibbutz or) ו ug orיShu7 -come under the consonants immedi יי , , צי , ,־brew, the vowel-points נokי7 רָאק (man (manי מאן :ately preceding the vowel-letters; for example (coat), גֶעֶל gel (yellow) פִיש .fish (fish), י? נייןeim (no). Shu7יwa )וּ( is

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.are to be pronounced ci and where st וו where פֿטachיא Experience (* {

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but a substitute for the plain גוּט :ו got(good) Cholom )י( cטmes above oi) and at the left top-corner of any) וי in the Yiddish diphthorg ו the letter in a Hebrew word reduiring that vowel: לוֹיג toig (lye), טשָׁה 6:50:יי מקבּל :moishe (Moses). 6ibbuts occurs only in.Hebrew wordsי (cabbalist). ? ג

'8 5. When the Hebrew vowel-points are employed, every vowelless consonant of a word, except the last, is marked below with (:)-a Hebrew sign placed under letters to indicate the absence of a vowel; for example : זִינְגֶען aimgem (to sing), הַאנְד hamd (hand), קֶעלְט kelt (cold). יי 8 6. When the Hebrew vowel-poietsare used the hard ב and 20elts פֶעלְץ ,)halb (hali הַאלְבּ :(4 ,8 88 ,must have their dots (II פ (furcoat). -standing ford ofre א ,In the absence of Efebrew vowel-points .87 quently has under it the vowel-signs אָ, אַ) י ר(; for example: מאַן mam .(doch (yet דאָך ,(man) at the יי ,י agreeably to rule precedes the vowels ,א When .8 8 beginning of words, the vowel-points must be placed under that letter; for example: 4 אִיךְch (I) אִיין ei74 (one) אַיין dim (in(.

IV. HEADING OF EIEBREW WORD8.

g 1. The Hebrew words occurring in Yiddish retain their original spelling and their reading if they are presented without vowels, can be learmed only by experience.

;represents two sounds: s and sh ש g 2. In Hebrew the letter when the word containing it is punctated, the former is indicated for ;(ש) and the latter, by a dot at its right (ש) by a dot at its left example: שְׁמְחָה simche (joy), שְׁבָּת shdbes (Sabbath).

-at the end of words, is pro (הַ) with Patach under it ח 8 8

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is ,ד preceded by Patach (-) and punctated with יע or א 4 8 pronounced di: מאַמֶר maimar (article( י מעַשְׁהndise (story) In יעקב (Jacob) the nasal sound m is added: gainkoiu. ו &

-are frequently in י and ו ,In Hebrew words not punctated .5 8 w/ תפילה (כח פoicch (fo כוח ;serted to tacilitate their reading

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are in accordance with the וֹ ,יי , The above modfications of יי ancient pronunciation of these vowels, while the change of v to (et) is anomalous.

. 8 7. Final vowels of Hebrewwords not accented in Yddish, are sounded 9: תַּכְלִית tachles (end=), גְדוּלָה gd'ule (greatness), דֶלוּת ddle& (poverty). From this rule are excepted: 1) the vowel a (-) before the sound ch )מִזְבְּחַ :(כ ה ?mizbeiach (altar), מַלְאַךְ- מַלְאָךְ ?malach (angel); 2) the vowel o )י preceded by * or דָבָר : וֹ douo7י )thing(, עוֹלָם oilom נָבִים ,)mdidim (Mars? מאַדִים :ים world); 3) the Chirig (.) preceding)

* יישר* (thieves). Im words terminating in ל or נ not preceded ; the same letter, the final vowel is silent: מֶשְׁל ?mosh'l (simile), חָרָן chos' י (bridegroom), מַאֲכָל ?ndich'. (dainty eatable), לַמְדָן tanud'm (learne man), קְטוֹן kot'n (minor בִּית-דִין be8-d'71 (court), גִלְגַוּל gilg' (transmigrant), עֶגְל eig'l (calf). Between two נ's or two ל's the inal unaccented olut עלול (tachmum (supplication תַּחֲנוּן :unchanged יוֹיי וּ vowel זֵיי . lo remains unchanged before וּ liable). The final vowel)

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sh or s t th 6

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