Зображення сторінки
PDF

2.56

DANIEL — MAXIMUS TYRIUS — RYMER.

from the name of Jones being so common, had no difficulty to prove a descent by means of parochial registers: but had the parochial registers contained an identification (which is most simply to be done), none of those attempts which have failed for the Jones estates, or for the Angel estate, would have been brought into court; and much perjury, much wickedness, and great expense, would have been avoided: the Jones case was attended with ruin to a great many poor families, who, believing in the representation of the claimant, mortgaged and sold their property, and handed it over to the claimant to go to the Shrewsbury assizes to prove his case ; and I know it was a mistaken case (not to use a stronger term); they brought the papers into my office, and it was evident they were under an erroneous impression." — Report on Parochial Registration, p. 114.

[Confused History of the Wars between the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes."]

"As soon as the Saxons had ended their travails with the Brittains, and drew to settling of a monarchy, the Danes, as if ordained to revenge their slaughters, began to assault them with the like afflictions. The long, the many, and horrible encounters between these two fierce nations, with the bloodshed and infinite spoils committed in every part of the land, are of so disordered and troublous memory, that what with their asperous names, together with the confusion of places, times, and persons, intricately delivered, is yet a war to the reader to overlook them."—Daniel, p. 12.

[Dangers to Agriculture from War."]

Even in the most peaceful age of the world, Maximvs Ttbius expatiates upon the dangers to which the cultivator was exposed: Uot r«c rpairnrai, irov Tit tipn yeuipyiav d<r<pn\ti;—MiJ ycutpyei, avdptD

ire, ea Tj)v yijy atcaXXuTrtTOv, abypuaav vaoiv KiFfif, roXipov Kivtic. (Dissert, nil.) 'Whither may any one turn where he can find agriculture safe? — O man! cultivate not the ground; let it lie neglected and waste, unless you would stir up contention, unless you would stir up war.' — This, indeed, occurs in a declamation; but it is not disputed in the counter-declamation which follows it.

[Book-Coverings for Henry the Fifth.] 1416.

"Pro Coopertnris Librorum Regis.

"Eidem Domino Regi, in Cameram siiam, ad cooperturas diversorum librorum Domini nostri Regis, et cum bagges cooperiend. in pann. velvet, adaurat. seric. plan, et motle, pann. baldek adaurat. et linand. cum satyn, diversor. color, de mandato Duniini Regis.

1 pec. 6 uln. velvet, plan.

1 uln. velvet motle.

2 pec. 3i uln. velvet adaurat.

1 pann. 2i uln. baldek. adaurat.
9 pec. 4i uln. satyn."

Rtmeb, vol. 9, p. 335.

[Royal Physicians and Surgeons in the
Fifteenth Century.]

1454.

De ministrando medicinas circa personam Regis.

"Rex, dilectis sibi, Magistris, Johanni Arundell, Johanni Faceby, et Willielmo Hatclyff', Medicis, Magistro Roberto Wareyn, et Johanni Marchall, Chirurgicis, saluteni.

"Sciatis quod,

"Cum Nos adversa valetudine, ex visitatione divina, corporaliter lahorcmus, a qui Nos, cum Ei placuerit, qui est omnium vera Salus, liberari posse speramus; propterea, juxta consilium ecclesiastic! co"snltoris, quia nolumus abhorrere Medicinam quam pro subveniendis humanig languoribus oreavit Altissimus de ejus salutari Bubsidio; ac de fidelitate, scientia et circumspectione vestria plenius confidentes:

KYMER — ERASMUS.

"De avisamento et nssensu Concilii nostri, assignavimus vos conjunctim et divisim ad libere ministrandum et exequendum in et circa Personam nostram;

"Imprimis (videlicet) quod licite valeatis moderare Nobis dietam juxta discretiones vestras, et casus exigentiam;

"Et quod, in regimine medicinalium, libere Nobis possitis ministrare Electuaria, Potiones, Aquas, Sirupos, confectiones, Laxati vas Medicinas in quacumque forma Nobis gratiore, et ut videbitur plus expedire, Clisturia Suppositoria, Caput purgiaGargarismata, Balnea, vol universalia vel particularia, Epithimata, Fomentationes, Embrocationes, Capitis rasuram, Unctiones, Emplastra, Cerota, Ventosas cum scarifications vel sine, Emeroidarum provocationes, modis quibus melius ingetuare poteritis, et juxta consilia peritorum Medicorum, qui in hoc casu scripserunt, vel imposterum scribent;

"Et ideo vobis, et cuilibet vestrum mandamus quod circa prtemissa diligenter intendatis, et ea faciatis et exequamini in forma prsedicta:

"Damus autem universis et singulis fidelibus ct ligeis nostris, quorum interest, in hac parte, firmiter in mandatis, quod vobis, in executione pnemissorum, pareant et i ntendant, ut est justum.

"In cujus, &c.

"Teste Rege, apud Westmonasterium, sexto die Aprilis."—Rtmeb, voL 11, p. 347.

[Grammarians.]

"Mat Priscian himself be my enemy," says Erasmus, "if what I am now going to say be not exactly true. I knew an old Sophister that was a Grecian, a Latinist, a Mathematician, a Philosopher, a Musician, and all to the utmost perfection, who after threescore years' experience in the world,

257

had spent the last twenty of them only in drudging to conquer the criticisms of grammar; and made it the chief part of his prayers, that his life might be so long spared till he had learned how rightly to distinguish betwixt the eight parts of speech, which no grammarian, whether Greek or Latin, had yet accurately done."—Praise of Folly, p. 92.

"If any chance to have placed that as a conjunction which ought to have been used as an adverb, it is a sufficient alarm to raise a war for the doing justice to the injured word. And since there have been as many several grammars as particular grammarians (nay more, for Aldus alone wrote five distinct grammars for his own share), the schoolmaster must be obliged to consult them all, sparing for no time nor trouble, though never so great, lest he should be otherwise posed on any unobserved criticism, and so by an irreparable disgrace lose the reward of all his toil." — Erasmus, Praise of Folly, p. 92.

Mobia, in Erasmus's Praise of Folly, calls the Grammarians " a sort of men who would be the most miserable, the most slavish, and the most hateful of all persons, if she did not some way alleviate the pressures and miseries of their profession, by blessing them with a bewitching kind of madness. For they are not only liable to those five curses which they so oft recite from the first five verses of Homer, but to five hundred more of a worse nature; as always damned to thirst and hunger, to be choaked with dust in their unswept schools (schools shall I term them, or rather elaboratories, nay Bridewells and Houses of Correction ?), to wear out themselves in fret and drudgery, to be deafened with the noise of gaping boys, and, in short, to be stifled with heat and stench: and yet they cheerfully dispense with all these inconveniences, and by the help of a fond conceit, think themselves as happy as any then living; taking a great pride and delight in

ERASMUS —RYMER —BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER.

258

frowning and looking big upon the trembling urchins, in boxing, slushing, striking with the ferule, and in the exercise of all their other methods of tyranny. Elevated with this conceit, they can hold filth and nastiness to be an ornament, can reconcile their nose to the most intolerable smells, and finally think their wretched slavery the most arbitrary kingdom."—P. 90.

[Archery in Henry the Fifth's timeitt great importance.']

When Henry V. was preparing to lead an army into France in 1417, he ordered the Lord-Lieutenants (Vicecomites) of Wilts, Surrey, Sussex, Middlesex, Lincoln, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Essex, Hertford, Southampton, Bedford, Bucks, Oxford, Berks, Norfolk, Suffolk, Somerset, Dorset, Northampton, and Rutlandshire, to collect and send him six feathers from the wings of every goose in their respective counties, except of such geese as were commonly called brodoges. The order bears the strongest testimony to the good service which the archers had performed. It says:

"Nos considerantes qualiter, inter gratiarum donationes, nobis a Deo, dum in partibus illis ex hac causa eramus, varie collatas, idem Deus nobis, non nostris meritis, sed sua ineffabili bonitate, inter cameras, per sagittarios nostros suis sagittis, gratiam atque victoriam inimicorum nostrorum multipliciter impedit,

"Ac proinde de sufficienti stuffuza hujusmodi sagittarum, cum ea celeritate qua commode fieri potent, et pro meliori expeditione pnesentis viagii nostri, provideri volentes,

"Tibi prsecipimus, firmiter injungentes, quod statim, visis pra;sentibus, per Ballivog tuos ac alios, quos ad hoc nomine tuo dux eris ordtnandos et deputandos in singulis villis et aliis locis Comitatus tui, de quacurnque auca (prreter aucas Brodoges vulgariter nuncupatas) sex pennas alarum

suarum, pro sagittis ad opus nostrum de novo faciendis, magis congruas et conipetentes, pro denariis nostris, de exitibus Comitatus tui pra?dicti provenientibus, in hac parte rationabiliter solvendis, cum omni festinatione possibili capi et provideri, ac pennas illas usque Londoniam, citra quartumdecimum diem Martii proximo tutunan, duci et cariari facias."—Btmer, vol. 9, p. 436.

In the following year, 40,000 feathers are required from Southampton, 30,000 from Surrey and Sussex, 100,000 from Somerset and Dorset, 40,000 from Wilts, 40,000 from Gloucester, 30,000 from Worcester, 60,000 from Warwick and Leicester, 60,000 from Oxford and Berks, 60,000 from Northumberland, 30,000 from Rutland, 30,000 from Stafford, 30,000 from Notts and Derby, 60,000 from York, 100,000 from Lincoln, 100,000 from Norfolk and Suffolk, 100,000 from Essex and Herte, 80,000 from Bedford and Bucks, 100,000 from Kent, 100,000 from Cambridge and Huntingdon.—Ibid. p. 653.

"Have Jou Dismiss'd your eating household, sold your hangings

Of Nebuchadnezzar, for such they were, As I remember, with the furnitures Belonging to your beds and chambers ?— Have you most carefully ta'en off the lead From your roof, weak with age, and so prevented

The ruin of your house, and clapt him on
A summer suit of thatch to keep him cool?"

Beavmont and Fletcher, Noble
Gentleman, p. 426.

Indian Relics.

The Indians of Virginia lodge in their wiochisan houses, i. e. their temples, certain kinds of reliques, such as men's skulls, some certain grains or pulse, and several herbs, which are dedicated to their gods; viz. the skulls in memory of their fights and conquests; the pulse by way of thanksoffering for their provisions; and the herbs on the same account, for some special cure performed by them. For when any one is cured by any herb, he brings part of it, and offers it to his god; by which the remembrance of this herb and its virtue are not only preserved, but the priest also thus becomes best instructed and skilled in the art of medicine. For otherwise, they are reserved of their knowledge, even among themselves. Often when they are abroad hunting in the woods, and fall sick, or receive any hurt, they are then forced to make use of any herbs nearest at hand, which they are not timorous in venturing on, though they know not their virtue or qualities. And thus, by making many trials and experiments, they find out the virtues of herbs; and by using simple remedies, they certainly know what it is that effects the cure. — Abridged from Philosophical Transactions, vol. 8, p. 329.

PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS—PALINGENIUS—RABELAIS. 259 260 WATTS —SIR RICHARD IIAWKINS — BURTON.

[ What is true Wisdom.]

"Sed qua; sit cultura animi fortasse requiris.

Est sophia, est inquam sophia; hanc, in

tellige, mores Qua? docet, atquc probos homines facit, et

vivendi

Recte monstrat iter mortalibus,ut pietatem Justitiamque colant suadens, et crimina vitent.

Sola ha>c nimirum sophia et sapientia vera

eat:

Hon ea cui passim medici vafrique cuculli Temporibus nostris incuinbunt nocte dieque,

Quasrentes rerum abstrusas evolvere causas, Naturaeque intus latitantis pandere claustra,

Materiem primam, vacuumque, ac mille chimeras

Infiatis buccis ructantes, ut videantur

Docti, et rugosas distendant sere crumenas.
O bellam sophiam, cujus studiosa juventus
Aut inhiat lucro, aut sterili ambitione tu-
mescit,

Sed nil candidior, sed nil moratior exit!
Non luce est cultrix animi, et sapientia dici
Jure nequit; potiusque vocanda scientia,
si non

Ambiguos veri ealles decepta relinquit. Ergo hanc qui didicit, scit, non sapit, atque scientis

Nomen habere potest forsan, sed non sapientia."

Palinoenius, pp. 265-6.

[Criminal Popidntion of the Isles of Sark and Herm in llabelais's time.]

"— J'ay veu les Isles de Cert] ct Herm, entre Bretagne et Anglcterre; telle que la Ponerople de Philippe en Thrace; Isles des forfants, des larrons, des brigants, des meurtriers et nssassineurs; touts extruits du propre original des basses fosses de la Conciergerie."—Rabelais, torn. 7, p. 302.

[ The Detil attacks the Spirit through the Flesh.]

"The powers of darkness," says Db. Watts, in one of his Sermons, "chiefly attack our spirits by means of our flesh. I cannot believe they would have so much advantage over our souls as they have, if our souls were released from flesh and blood. Satan has a chamber in the imagination; fancy is his shop wherein to forge sinful thoughts; and he is very busy at this mischievous work, especially when the powers of nature labour under any disease, and such as affects the head and the nerves. He seizes the unhappy opportunity, and gives greater disturbances to the mind by combining the images of the brain in an irregular manner, and stimulating and urging onwards the too unruly passions. The crafty adversary is ever ready to fish, as we say, in troubled waters, where the humours of the body are out of order." — Vol. 1, p. 49. (Leeds edition.)

[Mischiefs attributed to the introduction of Spanish Wines.']

"Though I am not old in comparison of other ancient men," says Sib Richard Hawkins, "I can remember Spanish wine rarely to be found in this kingdom. Then hot burning fevers were not known in England, and men lived many more years. But since the Spanish sacks have been common in our taverns, which (for conservation) is mingled with lime in its making, our nation complaineth of calenturas, of the stone, the dropsy, and infinite other diseases, not heard of before this wine came in frequent use, or but very seldom. To confirm which my belief, I have heard one of our learnedest physicians affirm, that he thought there died more persons in England of drinking wine, and using hot spices in their meats and drinks, than of all other diseases. Besides there is no year in which it wasteth not two millions of crowns of our substance by conveyance into foreign countries; which, in so well a governed commonwealth as ours is acknowledged to be through the whole world, in all other constitutions, in this only remaineth to be looked into and remedied. Doubtless, whosoever should be the author of this reformation, would gain with God an everlasting reward, and of his country a statue of gold, for a perpetual memory of so meritorious a work."—Observations, p. 103.

[More Employments for Women much
needed.]

"I Must confess, when I have seen so many of this sex who have lived well in the time of their childhood, grievously exposed to many hardships and poverty upon the death of their parents, I have often wished there were more of the callings or employments of life appropriated to women,

and that they were regularly educated in them, that there might be a better provision made for their support. What if all the garments which are worn by women, were so limited and restrained in the manufacture of them, that they should all be made only by their own sex? This would go a great way towards relief in this case. And what if some of the easier labours of life were reserved for them only ?"—Watts, vol. 7, p. 362.

[Mulliplication of Books.]

"What a company of poets hath this year brought out, as Pliny complains to Sossius Sinesius; This April every day some or other have recited. What a catalogue of new books all this year, all this age (I say) have our Franc-furt marts, our domestic marts, brought out 1 Twice a year, Prqferunt se nova ingenia et ostentant, we stretch our wits out, and set them to sale, magna conatu nihil agimus. So that which Qesner much desires, if a speedy reformation be not had, by some Princes' edicts and grave supervisors to restrain this liberty, it will run on in infinitum, Quis tarn avidus librorum helluo, Who can read them? As already, we shall have a vast Chaos and confusion of Books, we are oppressed with them, our eyes ache with reading, our fingers with turning." — Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 7-8.

[Demandfor new Latin works decreasing, and for English ones increasing, in Burton's time.]

"It was not mine intent to prostitute my muse in English, or to divulge secreta Minerva, but to have exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could have got it printed. Any scurrile pamphlet is welcome to our mercenary stationers in English, they print all,

cuduntque UbeUos

In quorum foliis vix simia nuda cacarct.

« НазадПродовжити »