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206 HENRY'

cometh to his ordinary, he may have one figure more to grace and worship his talc. Another is malecontent, and he never prick eth up his ears till the preacher come to gird against some whom he spiteth; and when the sermon is done, he remembereth nothing which was said to him, but that which was spoken against others. Another cometh to gaze about the church; he hath an evil eye, which is still looking upon that from which Job did avert his eye. Another cometh to muse; so soon as he is set, he falleth into a brown study; sometimes his mind runs 6n his market, sometimes on his journey, sometimes of his suit, sometimes of his dinner, sometimes of his sport after dinner; and the sermon is done before the man thinks where he is. Another cometh to hear; but so soon as the preacher hath said his prayer, he falls fast asleep, as though he had been brought in for a corpse, and the preacher should preach at his funeral." — Henrt Smith's Sermons, p. 308.

Sermon-Stadiers.

"You must use another help, that is, record every note in thy mind as the preacher goeth; and after, before thou dost eat or drink or talk, or do anything else, repeat all to thyself. I do know some in the University, which did never hear good sermon, but as soon as they were gone they rehearsed it thus, and learned more by this, as they said, than by their reading and study; for, recording that which they had heard when it was fresh, they could remember all, and hereby got a better facility in preaching than they could learn in books. The like profit I remember I gained when I was a scholar, by the like practice."— Henbt Smith's Sermons, p. 317.

Soldiers and Preachers.

"there be two trades in this land without the which the realm cannot stand; the one is the King's soldiers, and the other is

SMITH.

the Lord's soldiers; and the Lord's soldiers are handled like the King's soldiers; for from the merchant to the porter, no calling is so despised, so contemned, so derided,— that they may beg for their service, for their living is turned into an alms. One saith that Moses is Quis, that is, the magistrate is somebody ; but Aaron is Quasi quis, that is, the minister is nobody, because nobody is despised like him."—Henbt Smith's Sermons, p. 139, edition of 1657.

Clergy despised.

"hath not this despising of the Preachers almost made the Preachers despise preaching? The people's neglect of the prophets hath made the prophets neglect prophesying. The non-resident keeps himself away, because he thinks the people like him better because he doth not trouble them. And the drone never studieth to preach, for he saith that an homily is better liked of than a sermon. And they which would study Divinity, above all, when they look upon our contempt and beggary and vexation, turn to Law, to Physic, to trades, or anything rather than they will enter this contemptible calling. And is not the Ark then ready to depart from Israel ?" — Henbt Smith's Sermons, p. 142.

Simple Preachers.

"These is a kind of Preachers risen up but of late, which shroud and cover every rustical and unsavoury and childish and absurd sermon, under the name of ' the simple kind of teaching,' like the popish priest's, which makes ignorance the mother of devotion. But indeed, to preach simply is not to preach rudely, nor unlearnedly, nor confusedly, but to preach plainly and perspicuously, that the simplest man may understand what is taught, as if he did hear his name. Therefore if you will know what makes many preachers preach so barely and loosely and simply, it is your own simplicity which makes them think that if they go on and say something, all is one, and no fault will be found, because you are not able to judge in or out. And so because they give no attendance to doctrine as Paul teacheth them, it is almost come to pass, that in a whole sermon the hearer cannot pick out one note more than he could gather himself. Wheat is good; but they which sell the refuse of wheat are reproved. (Amos viii. 6.) So, preaching is good; but this refuse of preaching is but like swearing; for one takes the name of God in vain, and the other takes the word of God in vain. As every sound is not music, so every sermon is not preaching, but worse than if he should read an homily." — Henbt Smith's Sermons, p. 143.

HENRY SMITH —THOROTON.

Luxury in Dress.

"Ir God were in love with fashions, he were never better served than in this age; for our world is like a pageant, where every man's apparel is better than himself. Once Christ said that soft clothing is in kings' courts; but now it is crept into every house. Then the rich glutton jetted in purple every day; but now the poor unthrift jets as brave as the glutton, with so many circumstances about him, that if ye could see how Pride would walk herself, if she did "ear apparel, she would even go like many in the streets; for she could not go braver, nor look stouter, nor mince finer, nor set on more laces, nor make larger cuts, nor carry more trappings about her, than our ruffians and wantons do at this day. How far are these fashions altered from those leather coats which God made in Paradise! If their bodies did change forms so often as their apparel changeth fashions, they should have more shapes than they have fingers and toes. As Jeroboam's wife disguised herself that the Prophet might not know her, so we may think that they disguise themselves that God might not know them. Nay, they disguise their bodies so, till they know not

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themselves; for the servant goeth like the master; the handmaid like her mistress; the subject like the prince; as though he had forgotten his calling, and mistook himself, like a man in the dark, which puts on another man's coat for his own that is too wide, or too side, for his body: so their attires are so unfit for their bodies, so unmeet for their calling, so contrary to nature, that I cannot call them fitter than the monsters of apparel. For the Giants were not so monstrous in nature as their attires arc in fashion; that if they could see their apparel but with the glance of a spiritual eye, how monstrous it makes them, like apes and puppets and Vices, they would fling away their attire as David flung away Saul's armour, and be as much ashamed of their clothes as Adam was of his nakedness." — Henry Smith's Sermons, p. 208.

All Land-measure taken from the Plough.

"all measures of the country have been taken from the Plough, as long as any memorials of such things are extant: for a Family, or Manse, or Hide with the Saxons, or Carucat with the Normans, are of the same signification, which is that we call a Plough-land, and was as much arable as with one plough, and beasts sufficient belonging to it, could be tilled and ordered the whole year about; having also meadow and pasture for the cattle, and houses also for them, ami for the men and their households, who managed it. This is the great measure so often repeated in Doomsday Book, in most counties by the name of Hide; but in ours (Nottinghamshire), Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire, only Carurats are found, which are the very same with the other, and esteemed to contain an hundred acres, viz. six score to the hundred; but assuredly were more or less, according to the lightness or stiffness of the soil, whereof one plough might dispatch more or less accordingly. Thus unequal also were the Virgats, whereof four made a Carucat; and so were the

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Bovats, or as we call them, Ox-gangs, of which most commonly eight went to a Carucat or Plough-land, one of them being defined to be as much land as one ox might till through the year; which, for the reason before, could not be equal in all places, but in some places was twelve, in some sixteen, in some eighteen or more acres. Nay, the acres were not equal; for some had sixteen, gome eighteen, some twenty, andsome more feet to the perch, of which forty make a rood, and four of them an acre; but the foot itself was also customary, in some places twelve inches, in some eighteen, more or less. — By these kind of measures were the ancient surveys made of every manner and part thereof; and by these were regulated all manner of taxes, as well before the Conquest as after. For though the Knight's fees, then first brought in, with their incidents, ward and marriage, &c, became a measure for divers aids or taxes afterwards, yet even they consisted, or were made up, of five or eight Carucats or Ploughlands a-piece; and the respective tenants paid for so many whole Fees, or parts of one or more, as they agreed with them who first enfeoffed them, according to such proportions of Carucats or Bovats as were the subject or ground of such agreements: so that still the Plough upheld all."—ThoboTos's Antiquities of Nottinghamshire, Preface, p. v.

Inclosures.A Shepherd who kept Ale to sell in the Church, the only Inhabitant in a once populous Village.

Thorpe, in Notts.—" Inclosing the lordship (as it doth in all places where the soil is anything good in this county, for certain) hath so ruined and depopulated the town, that in my time there was not a house left inhabited of this notable lordship (except some part of the Hall, Mr. Armstrong's house), but a shepherd only kept ale to sell in the church."—Thoboton's Nottinghamshire, p. 39.

Lord's Tax on Beer brewed for sale, Younglings that were sold, and Pigs when killed.

Fiskebtow, Notts.—

"If any braciatrix braciaverit cereviciam, ale-wife brew ale to sell, she must satisfy the Lord for tollester. If any native or cottager gold a male youngling after it was weaned, he was to give four pence to the Lord. If any native or cottager, having a swine above a year old, should kill him, he was to give the Lord one penny, and it was called Thistelcah."Thoboton's Nottinghamshire, p. 308.

Epitaph of Whalley's Grandfather.

Richabd Whalley, grandfather of the regicide, died in 1583, at the age of 84, and these verses were inscribed on his monument.

"Behold bis Wives were number three;

Two of them died in right good fame; The third this Tomb erected she

For him who well deserved the same, Both for his life and goodly end, Which all that knows must needs commend, And they that knows not, yet may see A worthy Whalley lo was he.

"Since time brings all things to an end,

Let us ourselves apply,
And learn by this our faithful friend,

That here in tomb doth lie,
To fear the Lord, and eke behold
The fairest is but dust and mold:
For as we are, so once was he;
And as he is, so must we be."

Thoboton's Nottinghamshire.

Duke of Newcastle, and the old Chapel at Welbeck.

Speaking of the House, and site of the Monastery of Welbeck, "now," saysTuoBOTon, Nov. 11, 1674, "the mansion-house of his Grace the Duke of Newcastle," the old antiquary, after noticing the Duke's " most excellent pieces concerning Horsemanship, both in French and English," proceeds to say, " whereof he is so great a master, that though he be above eighty years of age, he very constantly diverts himself with it still; insomuch that he is thought to have taken as great pleasure in beholding his great store of choice well-managed horses (wherewith his fine stables are continually furnished) appear, to exercise their gifts in his magnificent riding-house, which he long since built there of brick, as in elder time any one could take to see the religious performances of the Monks in the quire of the great church of St. James, now utterly vanished, except the chapel for the house was any part of it, which of late years also hath lain buried in the ruins of its roof, the want whereof doth a little diminish the glory of this brave palace. Yet seeing that neither the wisdom, nor piety, nor charity of those formerly concerned here, nor their right, title, nor propriety, nor indeed of God himself, could in this place secure or preserve a church against a King and Parliament professing the same God and the same religion, I cannot perceive how the most obstinate and zealous pretenders to religion and property of this time can justly wonder if his Grace be not much concerned for this ruinous chapel. The woods, especially those nigh the House, are better preserved."— Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, p. 453.

THOROTON. 209 TIIOROTON — HENRY SMITH.

Privilege of the Order of Sempringham.

The Prior of Mathersey, of the Order of Sempringham, 3 Edward III. claimed to have, "for himself and his men, quittance, in city and borough, in markets and fairs, in passage of bridges and ports of the sea, and in all places through England, from toll and pontage." — Thobotoh's Nottinghamshire, p. 480.

Sherwood watted; and the Bilberries in danger of being destroyed, that used to be a great Profit and Pleasure to the Poor.

Thoboton complains that the Duke of Newcastle's deputies and lieutenants as Justice in Eyre of all His Majesty's forests, &c. north of the Trent, "have allowed such and so many claims [in Sherwood] that there will not, very shortly, be wood enough left to cover the bilberries, which every summer were wont to be an extraordinary great profit and pleasure to poor people, who gathered them, and carried them all about the country to sell. I shall therefore at this time say no more, May 24, 1675." And with these words he concludes his Antiquities of Nottinghamshire.

■Sir William Sutton's Epitaph.

Ik Aram or Averham church, Notts.—

"Sir William Sutton's corpse here tombed sleeps,

Whose happy soul in better mansion keeps. Thrice nine years lived he with his Lady fair, A lovely, noble, and like virtuous pair. Their generous offspring, parents' joy of heart,

Eight of each sex: of each an equal part Ushered to Heaven their Father; and the other

Remained behind him to attend their Mother."

Tuorotos's Nottinghamshire, p. 328.

Staple Merchant's Gratitude to the Wool Trade.

One Mr. Barton, "a merchant of the Staple, built a fair stone house at Holme, in Nottinghamshire, and a fair chapel like n parish church. In the windows of his house was this posie,

I thank God, and ever shall,
It is the sheep hath paid for all.

A thankful and humble acknowledgment 210

of the means whereby he got his estate, which now remains to the Lord Bellasis, sometime Governor of Newark, as I take it."—Thobotok's Nottinghamshire, p. 349.

Etymology of the River Idle.

"Id or Yd, in the British language, signifies sege», corn; and ydlan, area ubi reponuntur collecuc segetes,—which in these parts we call a stack yard: so that it seems the river Idle had its name from corn, with which the neighbouring fields ever abounded; and Adelocum was intended by the Romans for the place upon Ydel, after the broad pronunciation of Ai for I, which is still frequent in this country; as Segelocum [as it is otherwise called] after the signification, ydle signifying a granary amongst the Britons." — Tuorotox's Nottinghamshire, p. 414.

Inclosures multiplied by the Dissolution.

"The Plough upheld all, as the Laws did it indifferently well, till that stupendous Act which swept away the Monasteries; whose lands and tythes being presently after made the possessions and inheritances of private men, gave more frequent encouragement and opportunities to such men as had got competent shares of them, further to improve and augment their own revenues by greater loss to the commonwealth, viz. by enclosing and converting arable to pasture, which as certainly diminisheth the yearly fruits, as it doth the people; for we may observe that a lordship in tillage, every year affords more than double the profits which it can in pasture, and yet the latter way the landlord may perhaps have double the rent he had before: the reason whereof is, that in pasture he hath the whole profit, there being required neither men nor charge worth speaking of; whereas in tillage, the people and their families necessarily employed upon it (which surely in respect of God or Man, Church or King, make a more

considerable part of the commonwealib than a little unlawful increase of a private person's rent) must be maintained, and their public duties discharged, before the landlord's rent can be raised or ascertained. But this improvement of rent certainly caused the decay of tillage, and that depopulation, which hath much impaired our county [Notts.] and some of our neighbours, and which divers laws and statutes have in vain attempted to hinder.

"The statutes of Eliz. 39 against the decaying of towns and houses of husbandry, and for maintenance of husbandry and tillage, are both expired; but if they had not they would have been repealed, as divers of like sort have been; so that we cannot expect a stop for this great evil till it stay itself; that is, till depopulating a lordship will not improve or encrease the owner's rent; some examples whereof I have seen already, and more may do, because pasture already begins to exceed the vent for the commodities which <t yields. But other restraint, till the Lords, and such gentlemen as are usually members of the House of Commons, who have been the chief and almost only authors of, and gainers by, this false-named improvement of their lands amongst us, think fit to make a self-denying act in this particular, would be as vain to think of, as that any law which hinders the profit of a powerful man should be effectually executed. This prevailing mischief, in some parts of this shire, hath taken away and destroyed more private families of good account, than time itself within the compass of my observations."—Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, Preface, p. 5-6*.

The Devil's Doings at Sermon-time.

"There is no sentence in scripture which the Devil had rather you should not regard than this lesson of hearing; for if you take heed how you hear, you shall not only profit by this sermon, but every sermon after this shall leave such instruction and peace and

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