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BISHOP PATRICK —PHILOSOPHICAL COLLECTIONS.
You may take my word for it. For whether you be in the right or no, is not to be known by experience, but by reason. In like manner if you tell me you find by experience your minuter is a good man, because he doth you good, it is a frivolous argument, and I may be allowed to slight it; for it cannot be known by your experience what he is. You can only know by your experience that you are made better, but he may be bad enough notwithstanding; as the Quakers were reformed of cheating and cousenage in some places by those who, there is great reason to suspect, were cheating knaves themselves.
"Non-C. But I may know by experience whether the things he preaches be true or no.
"C. It will deceive you if you rely upon that proof. For you may have some good done you by false principles. Nay, those very principles may make you do some things well, which shall make you do other things ill.
"JV. C. That's strange.
"C. Not so strange as true. For what principle was it that led the Quakers to be just in their dealings?
"N. C. That they ought to follow the Light within them.
"C. This led them also to be rude and clownish and disrespectful to governors. For all is not reason that is in us: there is a world of fancy also; and the flashes of this now and then are very sudden and amazing, just like lightning out of a cloud. By this they find they were misled in many things which they have now forsaken; being content to wear hatbands and ribbons too, which they so much at the first abominated.
"2V. C. I take them to be a deluded people.
"C. And yet they are led, they will tell yon, by experience. For they found themselves amended by entering into that religion, whereas they cheated and cousened m all other forms wherein they were before. And therefore do not tell me any more of
the good you have got by your private meetings, nor make it an argument of their lawfulness; for the same argument will be used against yourselves by the Quakers, who will tell you God is in no private meetings but only theirs, for otherwhere they could never find him. Take your choice; and either let it alone yourselves, or else allow it them. It will either serve both, or neither." — Patrick's Friendly Debate between a Conformist and a Non-conformist, p. 130.
Italian Scheme for a Balloon, circiter 1679.
In the first Number of the Philosophical Collections (1679) is "a Demonstration how it is practically possible to make a ship which shall be sustained by the air, and may be moved either by sails or oars," from a work entitled Prodroma, published in Italian by P. Francesco Lana. The scheme was that of making a brazen vessel, which should weigh less than the air it contained, and consequently float in the air, when that which was within it was pumpt out. He calculated everything—except the pressure of the atmosphere; and the only objection to his discovery which he could not obviate, was a moral one, like what the elder and greater Bacon felt with regard to gunpowder. "Other difficulties," he says, "I see not which may be objected against this invention, besides one, which to me seems greater than all the rest; and that is, that it may be thought that God will never suffer this invention to take effect, because of the many consequences which may disturb the civil government of men. For who sees not that no city can be secure against attack, since our ship may at any time be placed directly over it, and descending down maydischarge soldiers? The same would happen to private houses and ships on the sea; for our ship descending out of the air to the sails of sea-ships, it may cut their ropes; yea without descending, by casting grapples it may overset them, kill their men, burn their ships by artificial fire works and fire balls.
Misery of the “For the common soj well reckon them among minum, inter vulgus anim always carried with she' prehend the truth; thei beastly; they seem not spark of a spirit. This e wise the poorest sort; so is very needy and poor, t is ashamed of his pover man requires more hel the creatures, as clothes physic for his health, a tation, therefore the wa greater than the want For I have often seen i: blind, decrepit man, fu ward grief ; hungry, n less and harbourless; sustain his grief, witho him, without any cour without fear of God's of God's mercy, whicl most especially in suc! the sole comfort of protest before God, th: hope of my happiness, believe the miseries o just punishments of si fer the condition of di the state of man." Man, p. 161.
et the theme
Jesuits pro " — IF there be laymen's clothes, the to our Church, but it is the surest way once unsettle your fancies; of which ti you there is no en in the bosom of t1 much abhor.”—PA between a Conform p. 77.
and noble. Dat beter the guita . The Que THAT THISITT Å man's condition, 3 coles, is an AE: thi ftatim SINT IT TTD maen-wepers. But bearts, El DT tau de strated the
all the cries of London do Das gues, al man finner du alte
me what they sell, a Thi center Josef het ord to
» they do proclaim and ary ma si imia TRI 8 fotel
Consider, consider, wheatret me tell while I rs in e r en could endure the Italt, bui sa cumint, mi bastones
kal s i no prentice- in England say I came bus: henne De o u l anut air better / quipped for that frequent sig of my fark. w e een of our life / by a certain learned gentleman, a familiar
ne š a truth friend of mine, one Mr. Laurence Whitaker. SAS Machemine who in his merry humour doubted not to u nderwunst; / call me at table furcifer, only for using a
Grounds of Machiavellism.
of all Machiavelian policy, but only this; that, | ROBINSON says of the Wadd, or Black
supposing the inward corruption of man's Lead, " this ore is of more value than either
nature, it suspects and prevents the worst, Copper, Lead, or Iron.
- desiring to secure itself, though by the “Its natural uses are both medicinal and
worst means; and to purchase its own safety mechanical. It's a present remedy for the
though it must be inforced to wade through I cholick: it easeth the pain of gravel, stone a bath of man's blood : and proposing cer+ and strangury: and for these and the like
tain ends to itself, answerable to the coroses, it's much bought up by Apothecaries
rupt inclination thereof, as honour, wealth, 6 and Physicians, who understand more of its
pleasure, &c., it respects not the goodness • medicinal uses than I am able to give ac
or the lawfulness of the means to attain it, count of.
but only how they are fitted and accommo“ The manner of the Country people's
dated to the present use and occasion.” — iting it is thus; first they beat it small into
Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 212. heal, and then take as much of it in white wine, or ale, as will lie upon a sixpence, ir more, if the distemper require it. " It operates by urine, sweat, and vomit
A Bishop of Durham's Bounty. 5. This account I had from those who
" RICHARD DE BURIE, sometime Bishop d frequently used it in these distempers
| of Durham in the year 1333, bestowed ith good success. Besides those uses that weekly for the relief of the poor, eight quare medicinal, it hath many other uses which ters of wheat made into bread, besides the crease the value of it.
fragments of his house, the offals of his “At the first discovering of it, the neigh- slaughterhouse, and yearly much clothing. ours made no other use of it, but for mark In his journey between Newcastle and Durg their sheep: but it's now made use of to ham, he gave always by his own appointed lazen and harden crucibles, and other ves order, eight pounds in alms; from Durham els made of earth or clay, that are to en- to Stockton, five pounds; from Durham to lure the hottest fire; and to that end it's Auckland, five marks; from Durham to wonderfully effectual, which much enhaun- Middleham, five pounds."-GOODMAN's Fall ceth the price of such vessels.
of Man, p. 377. “By rubbing it upon iron-arms, as guns, pistols, and the like, and tinging of them with its colour, it preserves them from
Labour neglected for higher occupationsrusting.
yet Labour the Lot of Man. "It's made use of by Dyers of cloth, Labour is part of the punishment apmaking their blues to stand unalterable: for pointed for the primal sin : “now man, inthese and other uses it's bought up at great stead of patience in bearing this yoke, and prices by the Hollanders and others. obedience in undertaking this task, and con
“ The Lords of this Vein are, the Lord forming himself to God's law, desires nothing Banks, and one Mr. Sendson. This Vein so much as to frustrate the sentence of God, is but opened once in seven years; but then and to avoid the punishment; especially in such quantities of it are got, that are suffi- these last days, which is the old age of the cient to serve the country.”—Natural His- | World, we intend nothing more than our
GOODMAN— CORY AT.
And this they may do not only to ships, but to great buildings, castle9, cities, with such security, that they which cast these things down, from a height out of gun-shot, cannot on the other side be offended by those from below."—P. 27.
Slavery to which Fallen Man i* born.
"All the honest vocations and callings of men, what are they in verity and truth, but only services and slaveries? Every seafaring man seems to be a galley-slave. Every occupation seems a mere drudgery, the very beasts themselves do not suffer the like. What a dangerous and painful labour it is to work in repairing of sea banks; some are overwhelmed with waters; others die surfeited with cold; the very night must give no rest to their labours. How many have miscarried under vaults, in working of mines, in digging of coal-pits, casting up of sand or of gravel, how many have been buried up quick and alive! How many have fallen from the tops of high buildings, from scaffolds and ladders: if some carpenters and mason3 prove old men, yet how many shall you find not decrepid or troubled with bruises, with aches and sores? How many trades are noysome, unfit for man's health! I have known a student in Cambridge, only in the course of his profession, troubled with live dangerous diseases at once. How many trades are base and ignoble, not befitting the dignity of man's condition, as coblers, tinkers, carters, chimney-sweepers. But hearkye, hearkye, methinks all the cries of London do not so truly inform me what they sell, or what I should buy, as they do proclaim and cry their own misery. Consider, consider, whether any other creature could endure the like service. And yet this is no prcnticeship, that ever we should expect any better condition, but the whole term of our life must be spent in this slavery. It is a truth which will admit no exception, and therefore I will forbear to make any further complaint;
only, man's nature is corrupted, man's nature is corrupted, and therefore with patience we must endure the yoke ; no longer sons of a loving mother, but servants and slaves to a step-dame."—Goodmah's Fall of Man, p. 61.
"IonsERVED a custom in all those Italian cities and towns through the which I passed, that is not used in any other country that I saw in my travels, neither do I think that any other nation of Christendom doth use it, but only Italy. The Italian, and also most strangers that are commorant in Italy, do always at their meals use a little fork when they cut their meat. For while with their knife which they hold in one hand they cut the meat out of the dish, they fasten their fork, which they hold in their other hand, upon the same dish: so that whatsoever he be that, sitting in the company of any others at meal, should unadvisedly touch the dish of meat with his fingers from which all at the table do cut, he will give occasion of offence to the company, as having transgressed the laws of good manners; insomuch that for his error, he shall be for the least browbeaten, if not reprehended in words. This form of feeding I understand is generally used in all places of Italy, their forks being made for the most part of iron or steel, and some of silver, but those are used only by gentlemen. The reason of this their curiosity is, because the Italian cannot by any means endure to have his dish touched with fingers, seeing all men's fingers are not alike clean. Hereupon I myself thought good to imitate the Italian fashion by this forked cutting of meat, not only while I was in Italy, but also in Germany, and oftentimes in England since I came home; being once quipped for that frequent using of my fork, by a certain learned gentleman, a familiar friend of mine, one Mr. Laurence Whitaker, who in his merry humour doubted not to call me at table furcifer, only for using a
CORYAT— ROBINSON — GOODMAN.
fork at feeding, but for no other cause."— Cobtat's Crudities, vol. 1, p. 106.
First Uses of the Black Lead.
Robinson says of the Wadd, or Black Lead, "this ore is of more value than either Copper, Lead, or Iron.
"Its natural uses are both medicinal and mechanical. It's a present remedy for the cholick: it easeth the pain of gravel, stone and strangury: and for these and the like uses, it's much bought up by Apothecaries and Physicians, who understand more of its medicinal uses than I am able to give account of.
"The manner of the Country people's using it is thus; first they beat it small into meal, and then take as much of it in white wine, or ale, as will lie upon a sixpence, or more, if the distemper require it.
"It operates by urine, sweat, and vomiting. This account I had from those who had frequently used it in these distempers with good success. Besides those uses that are medicinal, it hath many otheruses which increase the value of it.
"At the first discovering of it, the neighbours made no other use of it, but for marking their sheep: but it's now made use of to glazen and harden crucibles, and other vessels made of earth or clay, that are to endure the hottest fire; and to that end it's wonderfully effectual, which much enhaunceth the price of such vessels.
"By rubbing it upon iron-arms, as guns, pistols, and the like, and tinging of them with its colour, it preserves them from rusting.
"It's made use of by Dyers of cloth, making their blues to stand unalterable: for these and other uses it's bought up at great prices by the Hollanders and others.
M The Lords of this Vein are, the Lord Banks, and one Mr. Sendson. This Vein is but opened once in seven years; but then such quantities of it are got, that are sufficient to serve the country."—Natural His
tory of Westmoreland and Cumberland, p. 75.
Grounds of MachianeUism.
"I Would gladly know what is the ground of all Machiavelian policy, but only this; that, supposing the inward corruption of man's nature, it suspects and prevents the worst, — desiring to secure itself, though by the worst means ; and to purchase its own safety though it must be inforced to wade through a bath of man's blood: and proposing certain ends to itself, answerable to the corrupt inclination thereof, as honour, wealth, pleasure, &c, it respects not the goodness or the lawfulness of the means to attain it, but only how they are fitted and accommodated to the present use and occasion."— Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 212.
A Bishop of Durham's Bounty. "Richard De Bubie, sometime Bishop of Durham in the year 1333, bestowed weekly for the relief of the poor, eight quarters of wheat made into bread, besides the fragments of his house, the offals of his slaughterhouse, and yearly much clothing. In his journey between Newcastle and Durham, he gave always by his own appointed order, eight pounds in alms; from Durham to Stockton, five pounds ; from Durham to Auckland, five marks; from Durham to Middleham, five pounds."—Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 377.
Labour neglected for higher occupations— yet Labour the Lot of Man. Labour is part of the punishment appointed for the primal sin: "now man, instead of patience in bearing this yoke, and obedience in undertaking this task, and conforming himself to God's law, desires nothing so much as to frustrate the sentence of God, and to avoid the punishment; especially in these last days, which is the old age of the World, we intend nothing more than our