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in fig. 4., and make it fast also with the thread A B. This completes the body.

5. Bring the butt end of the red hackle stained amber colour into the position shown in fig. 5., tie it there by means of the well waxed thread, A B, and cut off the projecting piece (G) of the hackle.

6. Wind the other part of the hackle, BH, fig. 5., two or three times round the upper end of the body, and bind it tightly and neatly there with A B, and in such manner that the fibres may stand as shown in fig. 6. This represents the legs.

7. Take two pieces, as shown in fig. 6., from the under covert feather of a starling's wing, and bind them on (with the butt ends towards the top of the shank) firmly and neatly, at nearly the same place B (a little nearer to the top of the shank). Part them, if you choose ; snip off the butt ends obliquely, bind the short stumps down upon the shank (so that they may not be seen), and fasten off. You will now possess a Great Red Spinner complete, provided always that you have seen a little more of the art than you have here read, and that you have been yourself a tolerably good dubbing-spinner.

To make a Buzz-FLY with a hackle (see fig. 30. plate 14,), the upper or pointed end of the hackle

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must be tied at the tail E, fig. 3. plate 3., with the ends of the material of the body (by means of the thread c, d), and the hackle must be wound up over the dubbing, and fastened off with the thread A B, after the gold or silver twist or other ribbing has been wound on and fastened off with A B.

If a Buzz-fly (as figs. 28. and 29. plate 13.) is to be made with any other feather than a hackle, the feather should be stroked back, its pointed end should be tied on at the shoulder B (fig. 4. plate 3.) of the fly, three or four coils of the feather should be made round the part above B, and the strands or fibres of the feather should be carefully picked out, as the coiling proceeds, otherwise it will not lie well. The butt end of the feather must be tied in at the head of the fly with the thread A B, which must be fastened off as usual.

In making a fly with wings intended to represent natural wings at rest (as fig. 2. plate 4.), the hackle feather may, in some cases, be dispensed with, and a little of the dubbing may be left out in the warping, or picked out of the body with a needle, after the winding or warping, to serve for legs instead of the hackle feather. In every other respect the fly may be made in the manner prescribed for the Great Red Spinner. (See above, p. 32.)

When a hackle or other feather is used for the purpose of imitating a winged fly buzz, its tint should be lighter than that of the natural wings; for the effect of the buzzing motion is to give this lighter appearance.

To make a Palmer 1. Burn in a candle the end of a strong piece of gut, and whip a part of the thread A B CD, fig. 1. plate 3., round the end of the shank of a hook (as before, see p. 32.).

2. Place the gut in contact with the hook, and wind the portion of thread, CD, of fig. 1. over the part of gut CE, fig. 2., the three or four coils B C, and the shank of the hook C BE, &c., not leaving the end of thread, as before, hanging from B, but including it in the new coils, and allowing it to hang from E, fig. 7.

3. Wind rapidly (or run) cd back again to C, and include the butt end of a red hackle GH (fig. 7.) in the four or five last coils of this winding.

4. Bring another smaller hook, I, into the position shown in fig. 7., and attach it to the gut ECF, by winding the same thread, cd, round its shank and the gut. Then wind c d two or three times round the gut only (close to the end of the hook), and back again two or three coils over the shank, to form the head of the Palmer.

. 5. Tie in (with the same thread, c d) another hackle, K L, by the butt, together with three peacock's herls, MN.

6. Wind the thread c d with the peacock's herls, spun or rather twisted on it, back to C and make it fast there (or hold it tight), but do not cut off the remnant. Also wind the hackle K L over the dubbing of peacock's herl back to C, and tie it, picking out any strands which may happen to be tied in, and snip off the ends of KL.

7. Now wind the remaining dubbing-spun piece of silk (cd) over the coils of thread and the shank of the first-mentioned hook down to E; bind it there with the well-waxed thread A B; wind also the hackle GH over the dubbing down to E, make all fast by means of the thread AB, snip off all the remnants, and your red Palmer (see fig. 45. pl. 19.) will be ready to make a pilgrimage in search of a Trout.


Fly Books, Boxes, et cetera. Having lost many flies out of the boxes and books usually sold, I at last adopted the following little device of a friend, which has certainly served to retain them better, and to keep them in better order for selection. Several round pieces of cardboard (as fig. 8. plate 3.) are first fitted to the box. At the centre of each of these


is fixed a piece of cork, round which two concentric circles of stitches of gut (or sometimes very well waxed fine silk thread) are formed, and they are covered at the back (or under side of the card) with a piece of paper pasted over them. On the upper side and under these stitches the barbs of the hooks are passed, the long ends of the gut are put through a hole in the centre of the cork, and these cards are packed in the box over each other, without injury or derangement to the flies upon them.

Experience has suggested a still better method of securing and preserving them in good order, viz. to stick them upon fine flannel, and to arrange them in a fly-case or book containing a separate space for each sort. By these means, when one is wanted in a hurry, it is easily and without derangement found. The flannel (fine Welsh flannel is the best) may be gummed upon the parchment of the leaves, the oil in which, together with that of the wool, preserves the hook from rust: a point of much importance.

The Basket or Creel should not be large and cumbersome, and should neatly fit the back. It may be painted black.

The Landing-net should be light, the handle long, and the net deep.

Nothing need here be said of the other little necessaries, conveniences, and luxuries which

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