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wind up the line would be nearly three feet for every revolution of the handle, whereas a common reel (now before ine), multiplying four times, winds up at every turn of the handle, when the line is nearly out, only three inches, and when it is nearly wound up, eighteen inches making a mean of ten inches and a half. The proposed reel would therefore wind up the line more than three times as fast, and besides this superior rapidity, would possess the advantage of winding up the line almost as quickly when it is nearly all out, as when it is nearly all in. It might also be so constructed as to weigh very little more than the common reel, made for such a line, and would be less liable to derangement, in consequence of both the multiplying wheels being larger than usual.

For Trout-fishing a well-made brass multiplying reel of medium size is to be preferred, such as is usually sold for 7 or 8 shillings. If attached to the extreme butt end of the rod, its weight will be found an advantage.

A reel has been invented lately containing a spiral spring which acts (in the manner of the spring in a window blind) upon the axis to wind up the line.

And it has been recently, and very ingeniously proposed by an experienced brother in our art to enclose, either wholly or partially, a kind of reel in the butt of the rod. If sufficient rapidity can be given to such a reel, without much liability to derangement (which does not seem a very difficult task), it will be an invaluable and elegant acquisition. This hint seems to have been partially adopted since our first edition appeared.

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End Line. For making a good End or Casting-line, gut is recommended in preference to weed, or hair; it should be of the very best quality, round, and of even thickness, clear, and hyaline in colour. If preferred, it can be steeped a few minutes in warm ink and water.

It may be made light, although as strong or nearly so as the end of the line. The length of the bottom should be about equal to that of the rod: or say, a foot shorter.

Four or five of the very finest lengths of gut should first be chosen, then three or four more of the middle size, and lastly one or two much stronger, rejecting the flat ends.

These may be further proved before they are put together, thus: - One end of a length may be put between the teeth or held with pliers, and the other pulled until the gut breaks at the weakest part. This operation may be repeated with the best portions, until they snap with


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considerable resistance. Then the ends may be reversed, and the operation proceeded with as before, until the last remaining piece is deemed strong enough for its office. This sacrifice of the bad portions will not appear extravagant, but the contrary, when it is considered that the loss of a whole or large part of the foot-line, with a fly or two, and perhaps a fine Trout, may be the consequence of an undue weakness existing in any part of it. After all, fineness is not to be sacrificed to strength, in Fly-tackle.

The selected lengths of gut must now be steeped in water, and tied together with the gut-knot, and the strongest must be provided with a loop, whereby it may be attached to the line. This should be done in such a manner, as to be able to detach it again readily: which is effected by having a simple knot at the end of your reel-line.

Hook. The Hook requires particular attention. It is a trial of temper to discover that one has made a good fly upon a bad hook; but to lose a good fish in consequence is still more provoking.

The Kendal or Sneck-bend hook (see fig. 40. plate 17.) is generally preferred in the midland counties, if not made too long in the point. The Limerick is also a good hook for large flies,


but made lighter than the Irish pattern. The Carlisle or Round-bend hook may also rank amongst the good ones, fig. 38. plate 17. The Kirby is used by some, and is an elegant shape, for small flies; see fig. 37. All these, together with the Kirby Round, which is the Round-bend lifted, like the Kirby, are manufactured well by Messrs. Hutchinson and Son, of Kendal, successors to, and (late) partner of the famous Adlington. They have kindly undertaken to keep Grayling Hooks, and Hooks for the Double Palmers, made expressly for the present work.

To prove the temper of a hook, stick the point into a piece of soft wood before it is fastened to the gut, and pull by the shank. If it is well tempered, it will not break or bend without considerable resistance.

Dubbing Bag. The DUBBING Bag contains everything in the world in the way of furs, mohairs, wools, and silks. Some people have neat little cabinets with cedar drawers made expressly; we cannot blame their taste, for they possess the means of keeping their materials safe and ready for use.

Feather Book. As good feathers are valuable, they should be guarded from the moth, by camphor, Russia

leather, or other preservatives. It is a good way to gum them in rows, in a book, placing a strip of paper over the quills. The most necessary feathers are : hackles from the neck of blue dun hens, especially those with a ginger-coloured edging: hackles from the neck, and near the tail of game cocks, both red and furnace: hackles from the neck of a black Spanish cock: scapular feathers of the woodcock or grouse: and brown mottled feathers from a partridge's back. These, with wings of the starling, landrail, and hen pheasant, and tail feathers of the wren, with some peacock and ostrich herl, may suffice to begin with. Some grey and brown mottled feathers from the wild drake may also be provided.

Fly Making. Many books, after trying to tell us how to MAKE A FLY, very justly add, that the art cannot be communicated by writing, the practice must be seen. We shall follow the fashion by way of furnishing a few hints for those who are unable to meet with a friend to direct them.

1. Take a piece of very fine round gut, and singe it in a candle at one extremity, in order that it may be less liable to slip after being tied to the hook, previously waxed. Then holding a fine silk thread lightly waxed with soft shoemakers' wax, A B C D, plate 3. fig. 1., in one

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