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acid action added addition alloys aluminium amount anhydride antimony appear arsenic atomic base becomes bismuth blast carbon cent charge chemical coal coke conducted considerable consists contains converted cooling copper curve depends effect elements employed evidence experiments fact feet fuel furnace gases given gives gold hard hardening heat hydrogen importance impure inch increased indicated influence iron known latter lead less lignite lime limit mass material means measured melting metallurgical metals method mixed nature necessary nickel obtained operation ordinary oxide oxidised oxygen pass portion possible precipitated present pressure properties proportion pure quantity reaction reduced regulus relation removed residues roasted shown shows side silica silver slag smelting solid solution steel sulphide sulphur takes temperature tion tons treated United usually varies volume weight zinc
Сторінка 350 - We have seen that this great Labor question cannot be solved except by assuming as a principle that private ownership must be held sacred and inviolable.
Сторінка 357 - But there is no more complete fallacy than this. What people call applied science is nothing but the application of pure science to particular classes of problems. It consists of deductions from those general principles, established by reasoning and observation, which constitute pure science. No one can safely make these deductions until he has a firm grasp of the principles ; and he can obtain that grasp only by personal experience of the operations of observation and of reasoning on which they...
Сторінка 129 - F.) is almost a viscous fluid," and he considers that glass-hard steel is constantly being spontaneously " tempered " at the ordinary temperature, which, he says, " acting on freshly quenched [that is, hardened] steel for a period of years, produces a diminution of hardness about equal to that of 100° C. (212° F.), acting for a period of hours.
Сторінка 350 - Speaking summarily, we may lay it down as a general and perpetual law, that Workmen's Associations should be so organized and governed as to furnish the best and most suitable means for attaining what is aimed at, that is to say, for helping each individual member to better his condition to the utmost in body, mind, and property.
Сторінка 89 - When this alloy is heated in vacuo to a temperature of 400° C., a slight explosion takes place, but no gas is evolved, and the alloy is then insoluble in aqua regia, which dissolved it readily before the elevation of temperature caused it to change its state. We are thus presented (as the experiment shown to the audience proved...
Сторінка 87 - Graham's palladium ; and allotropic nickel. It was further shown that metals could be obtained in chemically active states under the following conditions : — Joule proved that when iron is released from its amalgam by distilling away the mercury the metallic iron takes fire on exposure to air, and is therefore clearly different from ordinary iron, and is, in fact, an allotropic form of iron.
Сторінка 5 - ... anhydride, resulting from the decomposition of this copper sulphate, converts the silver into sulphate, and maintains it as such, just as, in turn, at a lower temperature, the copper itself had been maintained in the form of sulphate by the sulphuric anhydride eliminated from the iron sulphide. When only a little of the copper sulphate remains undecomposed, the silver sulphate begins to split up, and the furnace charge...
Сторінка 40 - ... and is now undergoing an investigation by Dr. Andrews, which may be expected to throw much light upon its nature ; (2.) the colloidal condition or constitution, which intervenes between the liquid and crystalline states, extending into both, and affecting probably all kinds of solid and liquid matter in a greater or less degree.