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though simple in appearance, is a complicated machine, made of self-adjusting pieces.
Voluntary facts are subject to the universal law of causality.
Are they our own work? No doubt, since they are the result of the totality of the states of consciousness which precede the resolution, and that this whole of states of consciousness is our ego.
Are they free? This question is artificial, unintelligible, consequently insoluble. The word liberty must be expunged from psychology, as an inexact term which serves only to create confusion, and the word aptitude must be substituted for it.
Psychology thus conceived can and ought to be a distinct science. But it neither can nor ought to isolate itself from the kindred sciences, especially physiology, and, strictly speaking, there is no line of demarcation to be traced between them, because certain phenomena are common to both.
If psychology has its basis in physiology, it serves in its turn as a basis for the moral, social, and political sciences.
Therefore it ought to complete itself by a practical study, by ethology, or the science of the formation of characters, whether individual or national.
Such is the summary of the fundamental solutions of associative psychology. Our aim was to explain them : it is fulfilled. We leave the task of estimating their value to those who have something further and better to say.
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