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sion. — For thy part, Claudio, I did think to have beaten thee; but, in that’ thou art like to be my kinsman, live unbruis'd, and love my cousin.

Claud. I had well hop'd, thou wouldst have denied Beatrice, that I might have cudgell'd thee out of thy single life, to make thee a double dealer; which, out of question, thou wilt be, if my cousin do not look exceeding narrowly to thee.

Bene. Come, come, we are friends :- Let's have a dance ere we are married, that we may lighten our own hearts, and our wives' heels.

Leon. We'll have dancing afterwards. Bene. First, of my word ; therefore play, music. - Prince, thou art sad; get thee a wife, get thee a wife : there is no staff more reverend than one tipped with horn."

Enter a Messenger. Mess. My lord, your brother John is ta’en in flight, And brought with armed men back to Messina.

Bene. Think not on him till to-morrow : I'll devise thee brave punishments for him. — Strike up, pipers !

[Dance. Excunt.

? Because

3 Divers commentators think there is an allusion here to the staff used in the ancient trial by wager of battle. But Benedick is evidently regarding marriage as a staff, such a support as human infirmity often needs in the walk of life. And because the staff was used to be tipped with horn, be must needs have a final flout at the horn as emblematic of what he has all along regarded as the destiny of married men. Chaucer's Sompnou describes one of his friars as having a “scrippe and tipped staf," and be adds that « his felaw had u staf tipped with horn." H.

INTRODUCTION

TO

A MIDSUMMER-NIGHT'S DREAM.

A MIDSUMMER-Night's DREAM was entered in the books of the Stationers' Company, by Thomas Fisher, October 8, 1600. In the course of that year was published a quarto pamphlet of thirtytwo leaves, with a title-page reading as follows : “A Midsummer. Night's Dream : As it hath been sundry times publicly acted by the Right honourable, the Lord Chamberlain his servants. Written by William Shakespeare. Imprinted at London for Thomas Fish er, and are to be sold at his shop, at the Sign of the White Hart, Fleetestreet: 1600.” Another edition came out the same year, “ printed by James Roberts.” The play was not printed again till in the folio of 1623, where it stands the eighth in the list of comedies.

Fisher was a publisher, but not a printer ; Roberts was both; and the entering of the play to the former seems to argue that he had the copy-right, and that the edition of the latter was unauthorized. Yet, from the agreement of this and the folio in certain misprints, we are brought to infer that Heminge and Coudell must have taken Roberts' text in making up their copy for the press. In all three of the copies, however, the printing is remarkably clear and accurate for the time, leaving little room for controversy as to the true reading : probably none of the Poet's works has reached us in a more perfect state. As an instance of the general correctness, Knight aptly refers to the Prologue of the Interlude, which is carefully mispointed in the original copies ; thus showing that either the proof was corrected by the Author, or the printing was froin a very clear manuscript. The main difference between the quartos and the folio is, that the latter distinguishes the acts: the scenes are not marked in either.

The play is mentioned by Meres in his Palladis Tamia ; which ascertains that it was made before 1598 : and a curious piece of internal evidence renders it highly probable that the writing was after 1594. One of the finest passages in the play is in Act ii sc. I, where Titan'a describes the confusion of the scasons, and the evils thence resulting 10 man and beast; and the description tallies so well with the strange misbehaviour of the weather in 1594, as to leave scarce any room for doubt as to the allusion. The disorderly conduct of the elements that year is thus recorded in Strype's Annals from a discourse at York by Dr. King : “ Remember that the spring was very unkind, by means of the abundance of rain l'lat fell. Our July hath been like to a February ; our June eren as an April: so that the air must needs be infected." Again, after recounting other signs of the divine wrath, the preacher adds, " And see, whether the Lord doth not threaten us much more, by sending such unseasonable weather, and storms of rain among us : which if we will observe, and compare it with what is past, wo may say that the course of nature is very much inverted. Our years are turned upside down : our summers are no summers; our harvests are no harvests; our seed-times are no seed-times. For a grcat space of time scant any day hath been seen that it hath not rained.” To the saine effect Mr. Halliwell has produced an extract from the Diary of Dr. Simon Forman, showing how the heavy rains

“ Have every pelting river made so proud,

That they have overborne their continents,"

So that we can hardly choose but conclude that the play, or at least the passage in question, must have been written after the summer of 1591, when the Poel had passed his thirtieth year, And surely, the truth of the allusion being granted, all must admit that passing events and matters of fact were never turned to better account in the service of poetry.

Another passage has been often quoted and discussed as bear. ing upon the matter in hand. We confess ourselves quite unable to make any thing out of it for that purpose. In Act v. se. I. when the parties interested are considering what entertainment shall be made choice of to grace the forthcoming nuptials, the Master of the Revels produces “ a brief how many sports are ripe," the third item of which is

"The thrice three Muses mourning for the death

Of learning, late deceas'd in beggary.”

Some have regarded this as pointing to the death of Spenser, which occurred in 1599 ; others, as referring to Spenser's Tears of the Muses, which appeared in 1591. The former, of course, could not be the case but upon the supposal that the lines were written in at a revisal, which would rule them out of the qnestion as 10 when the play was first made. The latter might indeed pass, but for what Theseus says of the performance there desig naled.

“ Tnat is some satire, keen and critical,

Not sorting with a nuptial ceremony :"

a deseription to which The Tears of the Muses nowise corresponds. Mr. Knight suggests that the passage may refer to Harvey's “ keen and critical," but ungenerous attack upon Greene, soon after the death of the latter in 1592 : which suggestion, however, he does not himself consider of much value, wherein we cordially agree with him.

Upon the whole, therefore, the best conclusion we can form is, that the play was written somewhere between 1594 and 1598. Yet we have to concur with Mr. Verplanck, that there are some passages which relish strongly of an earlier period; while again there are others that with the prevailing sweetness of the whole have such an intertwisting of nerve and vigour, and such an energetic compactness of thought and imagery, mingled occasionally with the deeper tonings of " years that bring the philosophic mind," as to argue that they were wrought into the structure of the play not long before it came from the press. The part of the Athenian lovers certainly has much that would scarce do credit even to such a boyhood as Shakespeare's must have been. On the other hand, there is a large philosophy in Theseus' discourse of “the lunatic, the lover, and the poet," a noble sagacity in his reasons for preferring the “ tedious brief scene of young Pyramus and his love Thisbe," and a bracing freshness and inspiriting hilarity in the short dialogue of the chase, such as the Poet's best years need not blush to have been the father of. Perhaps, however, what seem the defects of the former, the far-fetched conceits and artificia! elegances, were wisely designed, in order to invest the part with such an air of dreaminess and unreality as would better sort with the scope and spirit of the piece, and preclude a disproportionale resentment of some naughty acts into which those love bewildered frailties are betrayed. So that we cannot quite go along with the judicious critic last mentioned. in thinking the part in question to have been the remains of a juvenile effort, with which, after a long interval, the heroic personages and some of the fairy scenes were amalgamated or interwoven.

It is hardly to be supposed that this play could have been very successful on the boards. Though unsurpassed and unsurpassable in its kind, such a preponderance of the poctical over the dramatic could scarce have been greatly relished by the same audiences and in the same places where those performances so intensely crowded with dramatic life made their Author * the applause, delight, the wonder of our stage." Notwithstanding, as evidence that the play enjoyed a good share of fame, we may quote a passage from Sir Gregory Nonsense, by Taylor the Water-poet i 1622 : “ I say it is applausefully written, and commended to posterity, in the Midsummer Night's Dream, - || we offend, it is with our good

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