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Tell o'er
The sad account of fore-bemoaned moan

Which I now pay as if not paid before. Malone has a long note idly attempting to show that fight is used for figh.

10. Tell o'er, count over.

XXXI. Continues the subje& of xxx.-Shakspere's friend compensates all losses in the past.

s. Obsequious, funereal, as in Hamlet, A& 1. sc. 2, l. 92, 'To do obsequious sorrow'.

6. Dear religious love. In A Lover's Complaint, the beautiful youth pleads to his love that all earlier hearts which had paid homage to him now yield themselves through him to her service (a thought similar to that of this sonnet); one of these fair admirers was a nun, a fifter fan&ified, but (1. 250):

Religious love put out Religion's eye. 8. In thee lie. The Quarto reads in there lie'.

10. Hung with the trophies of my lovers gone. Compare from the same passage of A Lover's Complaint (1. 218):

Lo, all these trophies of affe&ions hot

muft your oblations be.

XXXII. From the thought of dead friends of whom he is the survivor, Shakspere passes to the thought of his own death, and his friend as the survivor. This sonnet reads like an Envoy.


4. Lover, commonly used by Elizabethan writers generally for one who loves another, without reference to the special passion of love between man and woman. In Coriolanus, A& v. sc. 2, l. 13, Menenius says :

I tell thee, fellow, Thy general is my lover. Ben Jonson concludes one of his letters to Dr. Donne, by telling him that he is his “ ever true lover ”; and Drayton, in a letter to Mr. Drummond of Hawthornden, informs him that Mr. Joseph Davies is in love with him'.-MALONE.

5, 6. May we infer from these lines (and 10) that Shakípere had a sense of the wonderful progress of poetry in the time of Elizabeth ?

7. Reserve, preserve; so Pericles, A& iv. sc. I, 1. 40, 'Reserve that excellent complexion'.

XXXIII. A new group seems to begin with this sonnet. It introduces the wrongs done to Shakspere by his friend. 4. Compare King John, A& II. sc. I, 11. 77-80:

The glorious fun Stays in his course and plays the alchemist, etc. 6. Rack, a mass of

clouds. • The winds in the upper region, which move the clouds above (which we call the rack),'Bacon, Sylva Sylvarum, S 115, p. 32, ed. 1658 (quoted by Dyce, Glossary under rack). Compare with 5, 6, i King Henry IV., Ad 1. sc. 2, 11. 221-227:



Herein will I imitate the sun,
Who doth permit the base contagious clouds
To smother up his beauty from the world,
That, when he please again to be himself,
Being wanted, he may be more wonder'd at,
By breaking through the foul and ugly miss

Of vapours that did seem to frangle him. 8. To wes, Steevens proposes to reft.

12. The region cloud, compare Hamlet, Aa nr. sc. 2, 1. 606, 'the region kites'. Region originally a division of the sky marked out by the Roman augurs. In later times the atmosphere was divided into three regions, upper, middle, and lower. By Shakespeare the word is used to denote the air gencrally'.-Clarendon Press Hamlet.

14. Stain, used in the transitive and intransitive senses for dim. Watson, Tears of Fancie, Sonnet LV., says of the sun and the moon his beauty sains her brightness'. Faithlessness in friendship is spoken of in the same way as a pain in Sonnet cix. II, 12.

XXXIV. Carries on theidea and metaphor of XXXIII.

4. Rotten smoke ; we find smoke meaning vapour in i King Henry VI., A& 11. sc. 2, l. 27: compare Coriolanus, A& III. sc. 3, l. 121, ‘reek o' the rotten fens'. 12. Cross, the Quarto reads lose.

The fortysecond sonnet confirms the emendation, and explains what this cross and this loss were :

Losing her [his mistress), my friend hath found that
Both find each other, and I lose both twain, slojs;
And both for my sake lay on me this cross.

See also Sonnet cxxxm. addressed to his lady, in which Shak[pere speaks of himself as 'crossed by her robbery of his friend's heart; and Sonnet cxxxiv. 1. 13, ‘Him have I lof'.

XXXV. The 'tears' of xxxiv. suggest the opening. Moved to pity, Shakspere will find guilt in himself rather than in his friend.

5, 6. And even I, etc., and even I am faulty in this, that I find precedents for your misdeed by comparisons with roses, fountains, sun, and moon.

7. Salving thy amiss, Shak[pere's friend offers a salve, xxxiv.; see also cxx. 12; here Shakspere in his turn tries to "salve ' his friend's wrong-doing. Capell proposes corrupt in salving'.

8. The word thy in this line is twice printed their in the Quarto. Steevens explains the line thus:* Making the excuse more than proportioned to the offence'. Stanton proposes more than thy sins bear', i.e. I bear more fins than thine.

9. In sense, Malone proposed incense. Sense here means reason, judgment, discretion. If we receive the present text, 'thy adverse party' (l. 10) must mean Shakspere. But may we read :For to thy sensual fault I bring in sense, [i.e.

judgment, reason] Thy adverse party, as thy advocate. Sense-against which he has offended-brought in as his advocate ? 14. Sweet thief, etc., compare Sonnet XL. :

I do forgive thy robbery, gentle thief.

XXXVI. According to the announcement made in xxxv., Shakspere proceeds to make himself out the guilty party.

1. We two must be twain. So Troilus & Cressida, A& mr. sc. 1, l. 110, ‘She 'll none of him; they two are twain'.

s. Respeit, regard, as in Coriolanus, A& II. sc. 3, 1. 112.

6. Separable Spite. "A cruel fate, that Spitefully Separates us from each other. Separable for Separating'.--MALONE.

9. Evermore, Perhaps ever more'.-W. S. WALKER.

10. My bewailed guilt. Explained by Spalding and others as “the blots that remain with Shakspere on account of his profession' as an a&or. But perhaps the passage means: 'I may not claim you as a friend, left my relation to the dark woman-now a matter of grief-should convi&t you of faithlessness in friendship’.

12. That honour, i.e. the honour which you give


13, 14. These lines are repeated in Sonnet XCVI.

XXXVII. Continues the thought of XXXVI. 13, 14. 3. I, made lame. Compare Sonnet LxxxIx. :

Speak of my lameness and I sraight will halt.

Shakspere uses “to lame' in the sense of disable'; here the worth and truth of his friend are set over against the lameness of Shakspere; the lameness then

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