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Zumalacarregui's change of political principles cannot be called ratting, for it brought him neither employment nor promotion, and the insurrection of 1820 found him still a captain. In 1892, however, he obtained the command of a battalion under Quesada, then an absolutist, against the constitutionalists; and his admiration of the French army, with which he upon that occasion acted, impelled him, upon the restoration of tranquillity, to study the military profession scientifically. His peculiar talent lay in the training and organizing troops; and, in order to benefit the more extensively by his skill therein, Eguia, whilst war-minister, removed him from regiment to regiment. He was lieutenantcolonel of the regiment of Estremadura, when the decided attachment of the royalists to Don Carlos compelled Queen Christina to court the liberals, ultras as well as moderates, in order to insure her daughter's succession, and thus to give that party the ascendency at court. By them Zumalacarregui was arrested; and, though subsequently liberated, he resigned his commission, and retired to Pamplona, there to live in narrow circumstances with his wife and children, three little girls.

And here, perhaps, we may best insert a short description of the man. He was, we are told, of middle height, broad-shouldered, bull-necked, and of stooping carriage. His dark grey eyes had a singularly intense gaze, and his jaw and chin resembled Napoleon Bonaparte's. In character he was stern and thoughtful; abrupt and laconic in conversation; haughty to superiors, good-natured to inferiors; and so profusely generous, that his wife durst not trust him with money, because, notwithstanding their own wants, his purse was emptied by the first poor soldier or even beggar who asked his charity. To her remonstrances he would reply, “ To give is to be like God."

At this period the Carlists secretly invited Zumalacarregui to join in an insurrection, the object of which was to seat Don Carlos prematurely upon his brother's throne; but he, like Don Carlos himself, refused to rebel against his liege lord. Upon the death of Ferdinand VII. the viceroy of Navarre offered him the rank of brigadier-general in Isabel's service, which he refused upon the same ground, considering Don Carlos as the lawful heir in preference to a female. He was now closely watched, and, during the first northern insurrection in favour of that prince, he made no attempt to join the Carlists, probably from reluctance to expose his family to the resentment of the queen's partizans. It was not till the treacherous seizure and execution of Don Santos de Ladron, Oct. 15, 1833, when, a few disorderly guerrillas only remaining in arms, the insurrection seemed crushed and the Carlist cause desperate, that Zumalacarregui felt the emergency to be such as imperatively required the running of every risk. His wife is said to have nobly encouraged her anxious husband by professing confidence of her own and her children's safety; and on the 31st of October he effected his escape from Pamplona. Señora Zumalacarregui soon afterwards found it expedient to fly herself with her two elder daughters to France, where she was confined by the police; and her infant, which she was obliged to leave at nurse, was seized by Rodil.

Zumalacarregui had scarcely joined the insurgents ere he was proclaimed commander-in-chief, and the appointment was confirmed by Don Carlos, when communicated to him. This is not the place for a detail of his military exploits; and the nature and brilliancy of his short career may be sufficiently appreciated from a brief statement of the relative condition of the parties at the moment of his assuming the command, of his consequent plan of conduct, and of its results. The queen-regent was mistress of about 130,000 disciplined and well-officered troops, with all the organized resources of the kingdom. Don Carlos had but a few guerrillas, scarcely any arms or ammunition, no preparations, no equipments; his strength was in the disposition of the Basques, prompt to rise at his call, even mothers were willing to risk their last surviving son for the prince, who, when Ferdinand's ministers proposed an infraction of the Basque rights, had opposed the attempt as illegal, and prevented it. Under these circumstances, Zumalacarregui's task was to create a Carlist army and to destroy the queen's, arming and equipping his own from the spoils of the enemy. To effect this, he fought whenever he could do so without disadvantage, sometimes without a second charge for his muskets. His knowledge of the country, and the favour of the peasantry, enabled him everywhere to surprise the Christinos. He lay concealed with his men till every shot was certain to tell; then fired, and rushed out with fixed bayonets upon the amazed and disordered foe. He thus gradually created an army of nearly 30,000 men, well armed and trained, whose attachment to, and confidence in him, were unbounded. He destroyed 50,000 of the queen's troops, defeated five of her best generals, two of whom were his own former commanders, Mina and Quesada, and wrested sixteen fortified towns from their hands. The massacres of prisoners laid to his charge were in him only dreadful acts of retaliation. He now thought himself equal to a dash upon Madrid ; but Don Carlos insisted upon first taking Bilbao, where he expected to find money for paying his troops; and, at the siege of Bilbao, whilst reconnoitring the place, Zumalacarregui was shot in the leg, of which wound, in a very few days, he died, at Ormaiztegui, in his brother's arms. It is said that his adversary

Mina, upon hearing of his death, exclaimed, “ It will be long ere Spain sees his fellow!"

Turn we now to the tragedy. The author has added little or no story to the real history, seeking merely to illustrate and develop the character of his hero, the feelings of the different parties engaged in the contest, the difficulties of generals commanding troops chiefly volunteers, and the horrors of civil war; which last he renders more impressive by the slight deviation from fact of giving Zumalacarregui a grown-up daughter, whose affianced lover is a Christino in Bilbao. The play is opened by this lady, Doña Isidora, in a monologue, of which we extract the beginning. - Doña Isidora. Torn from my quiet solitude I stand

A stranger in a world of strangers, midst
The bursting storm of factions, and where'er
I turn mine eyes they're met by flashing swords,
At Spanish beads aimed by a Spaniard's hand.
Sight agonizing to a Spanish heart !
Here lies the army of our lord the king
Encamped beneath a sister-city's walls,
Intent on slaughter; there the cannon's mouth
'Gainst the fraternal camp is pointed, ready,
At prompting of a fratricidal hand,
To scatter death amidst a host of brothers.
Here, my most honoured, venerated father-
The great upholder of our ancient rights,
As of this loyal nation's manners, customs,
Creator of his army as its leader-
Triumphantly his monarch's banner waves.
There, the beloved, in childhood's intimacy
Who grew with me, selected for my husband
By will of parents as by mutual choice,
From all he ever loved, all he still loves,
Now severed, and adown the eddying tide
Of hostile factions and opinions whirled,
Unsheathes his sword against my dearest father.
Thus with a single blow to pierce two hearts.

Image calamitous of civil war!"
Zumalacarregui joins his daughter, and asks,

“My daughter, did the roar of war affright thee?
Isid. Affright me? Am I not a Spanish maid,

And Zumalacarregui's daughter ?

A haughty word is easily spoken, harder
'Tis to abide the trial. Common courage
Is not unusual,-blindly it confronts
The moment's danger. But to consecrate
A whole existence to a single cause,
In that unflinchingly to persevere,

Fate's blows defying, inaccessible
To lures of vanity and selfishness,
With equal resolution combating
Th’external foe, and that, more dangerous,
Lurking within the bosom's secret depths-

That is the rarer courage of the man
Whom Heaven created for great enterprize;

Happiness he foregoes high ends t'achieve.” The next scene is one of argument between Zumalacarregui and a Christino, the friend of his youth, from which we extract some lines of the former's, containing the pith of the Basque sentiments—the cause of Isabel is less ably advocated.

" Thou speakest of the weal of generations

Living, unborn, on constitutions founded,
On laws. Have we not our old rights, to which
The king observance swears, and holds them sacred ?
With them he is our king, without them -not.
So runs the oath be swears at his accession.
We are contented with these ancient rights
Based on the solid ground of history,
Not paper rights, but living in our hearts.
For these the men of the three provinces
Have risen in arms, and this their battle-cry:
The monarch and the law, our rights, our king !
Ye speak of freedoni. Are ye truly free?
We are so, as our fathers were before us.

Ye're but a foreign nation's apes. What gain
Has France from constant change? A despotism
In freedom's garb, an everlasting struggle
'Twixt liberty and violence, a wavering
'Twixt tyranny and law, as everlasting.
And this Louis Philippe, your citizen-king,
The ball, the toy of faction! He to day
On this, on that to-morrow clinging, fawns
On selfishness and vanity, i'th' hope
So to maintain him on his tottering throne,
On this side by bereditary right,
On that side, by the people's hatred, threatened.
Ye deem Don Carlos an usurper. He,
A father midst his children lives, alone,
Unguarded, he in every cottage finds
A safe asylum, whilst your citizen-king

Still trembles for bis life. The conversation is interrupted by Sagastibelza, a wild, sanguimary, and powerful chief, who comes with the priest Domingo to insist upon the slaughter of all prisoners in the camp, in reVOL. XIX. NO, XXXVIII.


venge for the apprehended murder of his own son, then a prisoner in Bilbao. Obtaining no answer, he is going forth to execute his purpose, when Zumalacarregui authoritatively speaks

“ Remain here, general! And you, priest, what would you ?
Domingo. What would I? I? I am a minister

Of our religion, trampled under foot
By yon blaspheming crew. Profaned her temples,
Her altars plundered * * *
Forced are our cloisters, and their pious inmates
Expelled, turned out upon an unknown world,
To meet the gibes and mockery of a nation
Robbed of its faith. Whoever in his God
Believes is persecuted, ay, is hunted,
Like savage forest beast, from vale to mountain.
I, as a priest, the sanctuary profaned,
And the polluted altars, will avenge
In the life-blood of these ungodly sinners;
Will sweep them from the earth, as Samuel
The beathen monarch Agag, with sharp blade
In Gilgal, at the altar of the Lord,
Slew, and thus spoke, “ As women of their children
• Thy sword has robbed, so childless shall thy mother
· Be amongst women.'* This will I achieve
Despite the hardened Saul, who, God's commands
Resisting, spares his people's enemies.
(Significantly) Ev’n therefore was Saul's kingdom taken from

him." While Zuinalacarregui, after quietly giving his orders, is reasoning with Sagastibelza, the troops of that chief are brought in by Domingo, to enforce compliance by threats more forcible. Zumalacarregui calmly disregards them. .“ Zum. The God I worship, priest, said. Mine is vengeance.'

Therefore I exercise humanity
When possible. Thou fling'st religion's cloak
Over base passions, and thy thirst of blood
Glutt'st, in the name of God the Merciful.
(To the mutineers.) But you, seduced, blindfolded men, lay down
Your arms, and in obedience due await
Your general's unshackled resolution. (They hesitate.)
Ground arms! 'Tis Zumalacarregui's order.

(The arms fall rattling on the ground.

* In reading this, and subsequent yet more startling adaptations of the very words of texts of Scripture to the language of the stage, the reader is requested to bear in mind that this practice is, in Germany, so general, and deemed so unobjectionable, that it must be considered as proving in the author a really pious disposition rather than any irreverence, or "dainnable iterations.”

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