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system. We think it not Pelasgic, but correlative with these; and its use of the Dorian digammic forms, and the pronoun apparent in the third person of the verb, a coincidence which most languages have lost, argue strongly its retentive antiquity; the sound of r is often changed to l and t, while its syllables are marked by the grammarians as soul and body united; i.e. the vowel and the consonant; and the last by itself is considered dead. Its resemblance to the Bali too, we would observe, is greater than that of its cognates, which we consider a proof of its superior antiquity to them. Any slight exceptions in this, as in other cases, would prove, when examined, to be based upon this rule, or rather principle; in the operation of an unnoticed cause obstructing the uniformity. Such we presume to be the meaning of the phrase that exceptions prove the rule, which otherwise is but a questionable assertion.

We must now refer to passages of the works before us in support of our general remarks. It seems that the Brahmins are sometimes met by common weapons :-

" The mother of a Rayer who ruled in former years, at the time of her death, expressed a strong wish for a mango-fruit; but before the Rayer could cause it to be brought and given to her she died. After waiting a few days, he ordered the Bramins to be summoned, and inquired of them what was to be done in the case of any one who died while longing for a mango-fruit. They replied, that if he caused a thousand mangos of gold, each one weighing a hundred palanıs (a palam is one ounce and a half) to be made, and if he gave these to a thousand Bramins, then that longing appetite would be removed from the departed soul. The Rayer caused the same to be done, and bathed on the day of her death. Thereupon the Rayer's jester, named Rama-Kistna, said to all the Bramins, 'I am waiting to do you some small service, you must condescend to me;' and with this request he called them to his house. When some among them went, he carefully closed the door, and immediately on causing them to be seated in order, he took a branding-iron, that had been heating in the fire on the bearth, and bringing it, said, • My respected mother, before she died, said, that if she were branded with a hot iron she would live; but before this could be done she attained the heavenly world. In consequence, in order to give her satisfaction, you must be pleased, with a cool mind, to receive it in her stead ;' and saying so he cauterized some of them. Being greatly frightened, they all made their escape, and carried their complaint to the Rayer. He called for Rama-Kistna, and said to him angrily, ‘Knave ! what hast thou done?' He replied, "When my lord's mother died, what she wished for was given to them-in like manner, what my mother desired, in order to satisfy her, I gave to them.” The Rayer, ashamed, remained silent." - Tamil MSS. vol. ii. p. 125.

The advantages of despotism, and its consequences, are thus shown:

“ In those days the Padshah (customarily) sent to all the countries, this Pandiya-desam only forming an exception, one of his slippers, as a Furmana (or imperial mandate), which was placed in a howdab (on an elephant), and was sent in charge of two nabobs; at the head of twelve thousand cavalry, and from forty to fifty thousand infantry: the slipper was moreover fanned by two chouries (fans of Thibet cows' tails), and attended by alavattankal (kind of banners), by umbrellas, kettle-drums, and flutes, with other insignia. In this manner (the nabobs) placing this Farmana on the howdah, conducted it to the respective boundaries of the various kingdoms; and, there halting, thence sent word to the king of each country. These kings came forth at the head of large bodies of troops; paid homage to the imperial mandate; and, calling for it to their public councils, bad their own ensigns abased before it: they also carried it, together with the accompanying sirdars and troops, to their capital towns, where the mandate-slipper was placed on their thrones; where also, with polite speeches, costly presents were made to the sirdars, with promises to attend to the imperial orders delivered, and at the same time presenting tribute-money, tied up in bags."-- Tamil MSS. vol. ii. p. 205.

“The nabobs thence sent an Inayitthu-nameh (or authoritative message), by peons with silver sticks and silver breast-plates, to Trichinopoly, to inform Raja-Ranga-Kistna-Mutthu-Virapa-Naicker that the imperial mandate was arrived. Accordingly the silver breast-plated Chob-dars delivered the said message in the presence of the king, with the connected intelligence. As the king was young, he inquired of the sirdars about hiin what this meant. They replied, 'It is the Padshah's Farmana ; that is, a slipper placed in a howdah, attended with various banners and troops, which is sent to the rulers of kingdoms; and these kings go forth to meet it ; treat it with respect; take it, with those that accompany it, to their capital; give presents to these, and paying to them tributemoney, send them away. As this is the established rule, and the mandate is now sent to this capital, we also must treat it in the same respectful manner.' On hearing this statement and advice the king was angry ; but took the Inayitthu-nameh, and giving presents, and as much money as they desired, to the silver breast-plated Chob-dars that brought it, be directed them to go and tell the nabobs that his bodily health was not good.”— vol. ii. p. 206.

Accordingly, accompanied by the mandate, they crossed the Coleroon and the Cauvery ; and came close to Trichinopoly. As the king did not come thither, the nabobs and sirdars became excessively angry; when the Dalakarten, and the others, laboured much to appease them, and said, “As our king is exceedingly ill, he will come in a palanquin just within the fort gate.' Previously to this time Raja-Kistna-MutthuVirapa-Naicker had given orders to the keepers of tbe gate to allow the elephant bearing the Farmana, with its attendant sirdars and principal men, to come withinside the fort ; but not to allow the passage of the rest of the troops. Afterwards they came inside the fort with the Farmana, when with anger_they said, “Is your king not come ? have you such obstinate pride?' But the others said, 'Our king, from the effects of sickness, is not able to enter a palanquin ; come with us to the gates

of the palace.' They accordingly came with the mandate to the gates of Sri-Raja-Ranga-Kistnapa-Mutthu-Virapa-Naicker's palace. The king, being very angry, bid them place it on the floor. But paying no attention to his command, and not putting (the slipper) down, they again offered to give it into his hands. Thereupon the king called for people with whips; and adding, · Will the Padshah's people put the Farmana down or not? let us see,' further summoned people with ratan canes.”— vol. ii. p. 207.

- The king, seeing this, placed one of his feet within the slipper ; then addressing the people, said, ' How comes it that your Padshah has lost even common sense? When sending foot-furniture for such kind of persons as ourselves, why does he not send two slippers instead of one? Therefore do you speedily go back, and bring hither another slipper.' While he thus spoke they answered with all the vivacity of anger. On which the king became excessively incensed, and had them all beaten and driven away. In consequence, on going outside of the fort, they assembled all their troops and began to make war."—ii. 208.

A specimen of modern martyrdom follows: " When again among them, a relative of the ruling Sethupathi, was cured, as alleged, of a dangerous disorder, by the simple reading of the New Testament at his bed-side. This person, nanied Tiria-deven, who was not without right to the chieftainship itself, desired to become a Christian, and besought P. De Brito to give him baptism, wbich the missionary declined to do, so long as he lived in polygamy. Tiria-deven, to show his sincerity, informed his five wives of his resolution to provide amply for their maintenance; but to retain only one. The youngest received this announcement with the most lively remonstrances, which not being effectual, she carried her complaints to her uncle Ragunathen, the Sethupathi. The lady also engaged the bead Bramin, with others of bis tribe, in the same cause. As no instances could move Tiria-deven, the Sethupathi arrested De Brito, and had him brought in chains to Ramnad ; numerous indignities being heaped on him by the way. In accordance with the notions of the period, the Sethupathi told his refractory relative that he would have his teacher killed by the power of mantras. And it seems that one of a powerful kind was tried ; but the failure being attributed to some unnoticed error in the process, it was tried again without success : whereupon a still more malignant incantation was had recourse to; and, this also failing, the Sethupathi told the father that he would see if he was mantra-proof to bullets, actually giving orders to a band of soldiers for the purpose; but here, Tiria-deven interposed, and, from a strong attachment to him in the minds of the soldiers, the Sethupathi perceived the symptom of insurrection, which he thought proper to avoid, by sending the Father to Udiya-deven, the Sethupathi's brother, at Uriyar, on the confines of the Tanjore country. This brute, who was lame, at first received the prisoner kindly, and bidding bim employ his supposed miraculous powers to heal the lameness, promised, on that condition, to spare his prisoner's life. But the missionary told the patient, that he possessed no power of the sort, and that such a cure could only come from the Supreme.


Enraged at the reply, as not perceiving or understanding its propriety, but attributing it to want of will, the Udiyan ordered the death of the prisoner. He was carried out at noon to a scaffold, erected for the purpose, in a plain, which was filled with spectators. He was tied to a post, and, with some previous indignities, his head was severed with a common hatchet ; after which bis hands and feet were cut off: and thus this land was watered with Christian blood: for a Christian he was, of no common order.”Tamil MSS. vol. ii. pp. 220, 221.

The following history contains a variety of singular illustrations :

“ As Mangamal was of a good and charitable disposition, she constructed many village choultries throughout the country; and causing many Bramin children to be taught to read in them, she supplied them with food, clothing, and the like necessaries. It however happened one day, that on a nurse preparing and giving to her betel leaf, she inadvertently took one portion with her left-hand; when immediately recollecting herself, she said, “We have taken betel with our left-hand; by so doing a great sin is committed ;' and, after reflecting for a moment, she caused several well-read Bramins to be called, and inquired of them what was the appropriate penance to be performed. They replied, that if she made roads throughout the country, built choultries, and had reservoirs for water excavated, this crime would be expiated. Accordingly Mangamal had all the roads throughout the kingdom formed into avenues; and at the distance of every kadam (10 English miles) she had a choultry built; at the distance of every five nazhikais (6f English miles) she had a water-reservoir and water-booth formed ; and at the distance of every nazhikai (14 English miles) she had a well formed with steps leading down to the water. This work being completed, she had a handsome choultry built at Casi (Benares). While she was thus conducting the affairs of the kingdom, the people of Malayala ceased to send the usual revenue or tribute-money."

As already narrated, Mangamal had many choultries, water-reservoirs, and agraharas constructed while she managed the affairs of the kingdom. The Mysore king now died; and, as having been the opposite of liberal or bountiful, he fell into Yama-puram in Narakam. About the same time a Vanniyan (banian, or merchant) died, and was carried by Yama's angels to Yamapuram ; but Yama-Dherma-raja, looking at him, said, Why have you brought him? go take the person that dwells in the house next door to his, and carrying this person back, release him. While Yama's messengers were about to carry him back to the earth, the Mysore king, who was lying where he had fallen into Narakam, seeing that Vanniyan, thought, “That is one of our townsmen: is it not ?' and calling bim near, said, 'Appa! (father!) while I was ruling over Mysore, I acquired a great deal of money, which I buried ; and without doing any acts of charity I quitted and came away. Now Mangamal, who rules the Pandiya-desam, has done a great many acts of beneficence. And on the statement that she is coming hither, they have been preparing a great many triumphal arches of flowers, to do honour to her passage. Therefore on your return to earth, as you go to our town, proceed to my son, who rules the king

dom, and tell him that my money is in such a place : charge on him the urgent necessity of taking the whole of that money, and, by performing with it a great many acts of charity, bid him procure to me its fruit, in purchasing my release from this place. The Vanniyan replied, “Very well.' And all along that road they said, “Mangamal is coming ;' and he saw the whole road adorned for the purpose. On returning to his town, and again entering into his body, every one near was astonished, saying, “The deceased Vanniyan is come to life again!' He forthwith proceeded to the palace, and said to the watchers at the gates, I have important occasion to speak my communication to the king. They in consequence went and reported the request; and the king, giving orders for him to be brought in, asked of him, 'What is the communication ? He replied, “Having proceeded to Yuma's town, and returned, your father, who is fallen into Narakam, and lying there, recognizing me, called me and said, “As I was not charitable, I have received this doom. It is reported that Mangamal, who rules the Pandiya-desam, is coming, and all the people of Yama-puram are preparing to render her honour ; and since that lady has done many charities, they have even adorned the road by which she is to come. Therefore, in order to release me from this torment of hell, bid my son take the money which he will find in such a room, and perform with it many acts of charity.' Such a communication your father sent me to make to you. Therefore see that it be done.' He besides related the whole of the before-mentioned circumstances. But the king, considering the tale to be a fabrication, treated it lightly; and to confirm his doubts, remarked, "Mangamal is still alive;' at which time, however, Mangamal died, and went to Swergam. The Mysore ambassador transmitted this intelligence; writing to the king, 'On such a day, at such an hour, Mangamal departed this life.' On receiving and reading this letter, he thought within himself, •The communication brought by the Vanniyan must be true;' and digging in the place pointed out, he took thence the treasure which was hidden, and performed with it a great many acts of charity.”-ii. pp. 224–226.

"There exists an oral tradition in the town of Madura, that Mangamal was imprisoned and starved to death : the reference being limited to this person by her being stated to be the same that planted the avenues near at hand. The building within the fort, now, or recently at least, used as the convicts' jail, is said to have been the prison wherein she was confined by her relatives, for some fault derogatory to the family honour ; but particulars we have never learnt. It is only added, that her imprisonment and death were rendered of more than an ordinarily painful character by persons being employed to bring rice, mingled with salt, close to the barred windows of her prison; and when she voraciously flew at the iron bars, attempting to get at the food, then it was withdrawn. Whether such a fiend-like refinement in cruelty were ever practised, or the whole tale be true or otherwise, we have no means of knowing, beyond the mere tradition itself."- vol. ii. p. 226.

The adjuration of Cassius to his freedman meets a counterpart in this anecdote, though the actors in the narrative are nobler than the Roman.

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