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drove him about in a circle during four-and-twenty hours, and at last brougbt him to land at the same place, where the marabout, who was now awake, arose to salute him. Full of repentance, the Spaniard confessed his treacherous design, and delivered up the property he would have stolen ; after which he, encouraged by the pardon of the saint, again took ship. But the same fate once more awaited him, and, after four-and-twenty hours, the waves drove him back to the strand. The marabout received him with a smile. "Pardon !' said he, thou hadst forgotten my sandals in the ship, which hinder thee from thy voyage.'
“ This last miracle awakened his unbelieving heart. He fell down at the feet of the marabout, besought bis blessing, became a Mussulman, and ended his life as a faithful hermit by the side of the saint, on the same spot."*_Semilasso, vol. ii. p. 14.
The general appearance of the country, on this side of the capital, must, according to the account of the German traveller, be extremely picturesque :
« The land which we passed over in this excursion consisted chiefly of a plain, overspread by several rows of billocks, which, entirely waste, but by no means unfruitful, were thickly covered with shrubs. A countless multitude of oleanders, arbutus, pomegranates, myrtles, lavender, and inpumerable flowers, clothed them in the spring with the most variegated garment, and green meadows were charmingly intermixed with the clumps of shrubbery. Some Roman remains, though of little importance, might here and there be observed. A little before El Ibrahim, where the French posted themselves after having gained the first battle, tbe country changes its aspect, and exhibits an abrupt country luxuriously covered with trees, thickets, and loftier shrubs. On their sides lie some Arabian villages, the first I had seen. They consist partly of very poor huts of reeds, partly of dirty tents of camel-hair, into which crowded half-naked children, who beheld us with alarm and terror, and who, in look and manners, had all the air of savages. Although we threw money to them, yet they would not venture out to pick it up; whilst, on the contrary, the grown-up people took very little notice of us. In a meadow close by, under a tree, accompanied by two of bis courtiers standing, lay the chief of the tribe, the Sheikh Ben Omar, a very old man, with a long snow-white beard. He and his
* It is curious how superstition, in far distant lands and amid varying circumstances, is constantly reproducing the same forms. With us the puritans in the seventeenth century, while declaiming with bitterness against the pretended miracles of the Popish monks, did every day the same thing which they blamed in their opponents. The following story, among many others of a like nature, is found set down in the diary of a very respectable person of the north of England, where the puritan party seems to have been the strongest, who put it in writing at the time it was believed to have occurred (1680); it has a striking resemblance to the above legend of the holy marabout :
“ A gentlewoman near Newcastle having murdered her child, would have run away, but her hors would not stir; then she hired a coach; neither would the horses goe with her tho' whipt, but overthrew the coach; after she got into a ship to fly, but could not get from the harbour; in the mean time the child was found, and hue and cry made after the author (of the murder), and she was suspected and committed to prison.”
court were equally ragged. Nevertheless they assured me that the old miser had amassed a treasure of more than 300,000 francs. He appeared to be very ill-humoured, and used no ceremonies to the courtiers who surrounded bim. This country, where we again see ruined cottages, affords many picturesque points, particularly a magnificent dell with a cool stream, full of jujube, orange, and other trees, encircled with creepers, and a species whose stalk here reaches an elevation of twenty feet. To the advance of troops this ground, in an entirely unknown country, must have opposed manifold difficulties; and they showed us an olive copse where the Arabs, themselves concealed and protected by it, with their muskets, which are effective at a great distance, killed many of the French; and not far hence, on the right wing, a ravine, in which a whole company was cut to pieces, because they had conceived the unfortunate idea of cleaning their arms."-Semilasso, vol. ii. p. 16.
At no great distance from Algiers, Captain Rozet found monuments of that class which are generally termed Druidical. We regret much that he has not given us a drawing of them. We begin to have many doubts of the justice of attributing all such monuments to one tribe, or even to one family, of people; and the many ingenious theories which have been built upon this hypothesis are likely, we think, to fall to the ground on further examination.
" A little before the first stream, on the point of Ras Acrata, where the ground again becomes flat, we perceive, amidst ancient walls which scarcely rise above the ground, several rectangular cisterns, made with an extremely hard cement, of which two were still in a state of perfect preservation, and half full of water when I saw them. Following the ruins, in the middle of the brushwood, at a distance of four hundred metres to the southwest, I discovered several arcades of a small aqueduct still standing, and entirely concealed by the brambles. These arcades were but four feet high ; they are semi-circularly arched, and constructed with small irregular pieces of calcareous stone, joined by a yellowish cement, which is become extremely hard. I had long examined the cisterns, and the ruins amidst which they lay, but could find nothing which bore the mark of the hands of the Romans, or of any other people whose mode of building was known to me. When I found the aqueduct I was still more embarrassed; it resembles nothing I have ever seen in Europe or in Africa.
“I bad come to the conclusion that all these works might be of Punic origin, and, absorbed in my reflections, I slowly climbed the bill, which overlooks them from the south, to see if there were not some more ruins on its summit. After half an hour's walk, I arrived in the middle of a very extensive plateau, about 120 metres above the level of the sea, entirely covered with brushwood, upon which I found at first nothing but the rocks of tertiary grit which compose it. But in descending to the valley which bounds it on the west, I was struck with astonishment at the sight of two groupes of Druidical tombs, exactly like those which I had seen in France some years before. Each monument is composed of four stones of the same kind as the rock itself, entirely uncut, forming a rectangle, covered by a fifth as large as could be found in the neighbourhood. I measured one, which was two metres and a balf long, two metres and one-tenth broad, and two centimetres thick. In some of these tombs there were only three upright stones, and in several they had experienced a movement after the covering stone was placed over them. These ancient monuments were placed one beside another, without observing any particular direction; one of the groupes contained ten, the other twelve. In spite of their ignorance and their natural apathy, the Bedouins had been struck with the appearance of these monuments; they easily perceived that the stones wbich composed tbem were not there in their natural position; they had made searches about several, probably to see if there were treasures buried there, but not having found any, they left the rest untouched."-vol. iii. p. 163.
On a supposition which has been made that the Druidical monuments were the works of Phænicians; or, on another, that the Celts themselves were an Asiatic tribe which had arrived by the same route; these monuments might, there is no doubt, be accounted for. As, however, neither of these hypotheses seems to us to have been clearly made out, we willingly turn them over to the Society of Antiquaries, * and will ourselves follow Captain Rozet in his excursions. .
The road from Algiers to Constantine, which runs at first through a picturesque country on the sea-shore, and presents at every step marks of the decline of wealth and cultivation in the country, passes, at no great distance from Cape Matafou, the extensive and interesting ruins of the Roman city of Rustonium. Captain Rozet proceeded no further than this point, but from Salomon the Jew, who had often been to Constantine, he obtained a tolerably exact account of the remaining part of the road. The third day's journey from Algiers brings the traveller to the chain of the Little Atlas, and during the three following days his path lies through steep and dangerous mountains, which are inhabited by the Berbers, who levy contributions on all who pass. The most difficult pass is that of Biban, better known among travellers as the Iron Gates.
“ The Bey of Constantine himself, who never entered the Biban without an army, when he came with his tribute to Algiers, could not pass without paying a sum of money to the Berbers, who, informed of bis arrival, had seized all the positions, and would have crushed him and his army with stones, had be been so imprudent aș to try to force the passage. At the taking of Algiers, this Bey, who had brought an army to the aid of bis master, in his retreat carried with him a considerable treasure from the country-house of the Aga, beyond the suburb of BabAzoun. The Berbers, having learnt this, allowed him to enter the Biban with his army, and then fell upon him, carried off all the plunder he brought from Algiers, and even a great part of what he had originally brought with him to the war."-vol. i. p. 327.
* Precisely the same kind of monuments as these described by Captain Rozet are found in different parts of Germany, where they are called Hünenbetten. See Klemm, (Handbuch der Germanischen Alterthumskunde, Dresd. 1836, § 34,) who has given drawings of several.
On the sixth day the traveller enters an extensive plain, inhabited by wandering Arabs, and extending thence to Constantine, where he generally arrives on the ninth day. Constantine is a large and fine town, of from twelve to fifteen thousand inhabitants, but, according to Salomon's account, it was not fortified, and its only defence was said to be a small battery on the side towards Algiers, occupied commonly by a few Turks, and mounting seven or eight bad guns. The town is partly surrounded by a river, whose banks in the vicinity are covered with beautiful gardens. The inhabitants were said to be “ braves gens, sur la parole desquels on peut compter.” The army of Marshal Clausel marched on Constantine by the much shorter route from Bone (a coast town), estimated in the official accounts at a distance of about thirty-one hours, and, though they had still some mountains of less importance to pass, they avoided the length and dangers of the road from Algiers.
Bone, situated in 36° 53' 56' of north latitude, and in 5° 24' 38" of east longitude from Paris, is a small town, strong by position, and tolerably well fortified. The inhabitants are described as a people greatly superior to the generality of the population of the regency of Algiers. But the surrounding country is inhabited by some of the most cruel and warlike of the native tribes. Before it was first occupied by the French, these tribes had made several attacks upon Bone, with the sole object of plundering the town. During the first occupation, the French garrison were harassed by the most desperate and continued assaults. Captain Rozet was inclined to believe, from the character of the country and of its inhabitants, that the approach to Constantine from Bone would be much more difficult and dangerous than it had commonly been supposed to be.
Our space will not allow us to follow Captain Rozet in all his excursions, the principal of which extends as far as Medeya, the chief town of the Bey of Titerie. On this road, at the foot of the Little Atlas, beautifully situated, is the small town of Belida, whose inhabitants are declared to be the most turbulent and faithless of the whole regency, although, in spite of their own warlike character, the Berbers of the mountains frequently made descents upon them and plundered their town. The inhabitants of Me,
deya are famous for their love of the chase. Their mode of hunting tigers is curious enough: armed with a sharp yatagan, the hunter entices the animal to pursue him up a tree, and, turning round, cuts off his fore-paws as he mounts, so that he falls to the ground, and becomes afterwards an easy prey. But their manner of catching young lions beats all the ingenious experiments of which we have ever heard, and we confess that our incredulity is at least equal to that of our author.
“ The manner of taking young lions seems to me a fable, although it has been told by a person worthy of credit. They discover very easily, by the numerous tracks of their feet, the places where the lions have lodged their young, and they know that one of the parents always keeps watch whilst the other goes to seek food. When the mother watches, she never closes her eyes, and would instantly devour any one who came near ; but the father almost always falls asleep, and slumbers so soundly that a person may approach without disturbing him. He who has discovered the young lions, observes the father and mother until he is well acquainted with the hours of watch of each ; then, while the lioness is away, he mounts his horse and approaches as near the den as possible ; he dismounts with naked feet, and creeps, without breathing, to the young lions, takes one, or two if he can, without waking the father, returns to his horse, and makes his escape in all haste with his prize."vol. iii. p. 237.
To us, the most interesting part of the German prince's account of the regency, is his excursion over the Metidja; and here, again, we have a notable example of the would-be Quixotism of its author. According to his own account, he waited long at Algiers for some military expedition which might give him an opportunity of visiting the country between the two Atlas ridges; but at last, finding his expectations vain, he resolved, in spite of all the dangers with which people threatened him, to set out on this adventure alone. “He was confidently assured that, without two thousand men, the excursion was impossible, and that he who should venture upon it alone might be perfectly sure of having his head cut off; but our friend (the prince) is notoriously so sworn a sceptic in impossibilities, that even in this instance he did not give implicit credit to the assertion, although in fact it was a very general one !!” (ii. 91.) However, he procured from the Governor of Algiers a strong recommendation to the care of the câïds of Beni-Mussa and Kraschna, whose tribes occupied the ground he was going to explore. Being taken under such protection, we by no means see the nature of the dangers which he so courageously faced, nor does the narrative which follows throw much more light on this point, except that in one or two instances it appears that his guides told him it
VOL. XIX. NO. XXXVII.