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the nation was led from transports of general philanthropy to the sombre ascendants of sanguinary ambition.

"The SECOND opens with the strife of the Girondists and the Jacobins; and after recounting the fall of the former body, enters into the dreadful æra of the Reign of Terror, and follows out the subsequent struggles of the more exhausted factions till the establishment of a regular military government, by the suppression of the revolt of the National Guard of Paris in October 1795. This period embraces the commencement of the war, the immense efforts of France during the campaign in 1793, the heroic contest in La Vendee, the last efforts of Polish independence under Kosciusko, the conquest of Flanders and Holland, and the scientific manœuvres of the campaign of 1795. But its most interesting part is the internal history of the Revolution, the heart-rending sufferings of persecuted virtue, and the means by which Providence caused the guilt of the Revolutionists to work out their own deserved and memorable punishment.

“The THIRD, commencing with the rise of Napoleon, terminates with the seizure of the reins of power by that extraordinary man, and the first pause in the general strife, by the peace of Amiens. It is singularly rich in splendid achievement, embracing the Italian campaigns of the French hero, and the German ones of the Archduke Charles, the battles of St. Vincent, Camperdown, and the Nile; the expedition of Egypt, the wars of Suwarrow in Italy, and Massena on the Alps; the campaigns of Marengo and Hohenlinden: the Northern Coalition, with its dissolution by the victory of Copenhagen; the conquests of the English in India, and the expulsion of the French from Egypt. During this period the democratic passions of France had exhausted themselves, and the nation groaned under a weak but relentless military [415] despotism, whose external disasters and internal severities prepared all classes to range themselves round the banners of a victorious chieftain.

“The Fourth opens with brighter auspices to France under the firm and able government of Napoleon, and terminates with his fall in 1815. Less illustrated than the former period by his military genius, it was rendered still more memorable by his resistless power and mighty achievements. It embraces the campaign of Austerlitz, Jena, and Friedland; the destruction of the French navy at Trafalgar; the rise of the desperate struggle in Spain, and the gallant though abortive efforts of Austria in 1809; the degradation and extinction of the Papal authority, the slow but steady growth of the English military power in the Peninsula, and the splendid career of Wellington; the general suffering under the despotism of France, the memorable invasion of Russia, the convulsive efforts of Germany in 1813, the last campaign of Napoleon, the capture of Paris, and his final overthrow at Waterloo.

“The two first periods illustrate the consequences of democratic ascendency upon the civil condition: the two last their effect upon the military struggles, and external relations of nations. In both, the operation of the same law of nature may be discerned, for the expulsion of a destructive passion from the frame of society, by the efforts which it makes for its own gratification; in both, the principal actors were overruled by an unseen power, which rendered their vices, and ambition, the means of ultimately effecting the deliverance of mankind. Generations perished during the vast transition, but the law of nature was unceasing in its operation; and the same principle which drove the government of Robespierre through the reign of terror to the 9th of Thermidor, impelled Napoleon to the snows of Russia and the rout of Waterloo.* The illustrations of this moral law compose the great lesson to be learned from the eventful scenes of this mighty drama.

“A subject so splendid in itself, so full of political and military instruction, replete with such great and heroic actions, adorned by so many virtues, and darkened by so many crimes, never yet fell to the lot of an historian. During the twentyfive years of its [416] progress, the world has gone through more than five hundred years of ordinary existence; and the annals of modern Europe will be sought in vain for a parallel to that brief period of anxious effort and chequered achievements."

The historian adopts the figures of the prophet: after stating that “within the space of twenty years, events were accumulated which would have filled the whole annals of a powerful state in any former age with instruction and interest,” and comparing the events with those of Roman History, Mr. Alison observes, “The power of France was less durable than that of Rome, only because it was more oppressive; it was more stubbornly resisted, because it did not bring the blessings of civilization on its wings. Its course was hailed by no grateful nations, unlike the beneficent Sun of Roman greatness which shone only to improve, its light like the dazzling glare of the meteor "rolled, blazed, destroyed and was no more." See Rev. xvi. 8, 9.

So after speaking of the sudden and unexpected changes producing the most disastrous consequences, he adds "the ideas of men were entirely overturned, when rights established for

* "Le agitent,” says Bossuet, “mais Dieu les meme.”

centuries, privileges contended for by successive generations, and institutions held the most sacred, were at once abandoned. Nothing could be regarded as stable in society after such a shock; the chimeras of every enthusiast, the dream of every visionary, seemed equally deserving of attention with the sober conclusions of reason and observation, when all that former ages had done, was swept away in the very commencement of improvement. The minds of men were shaken by the yawning of the ground during the fury of an EARTHQUAKE; all that the eye had rested on as most stable, all that the inind had been accustomed to regard as most lasting disappeared before the first breath of innovation." See again Rev. xi. 13.

The natural shining of a bright sun accompanied Bonaparte's most remarkable victories. Early in the morning of the battle of Austerlitz, Mr. Alison (vol. v. p. 475.) says, “the ruddy glow of the east announced the approach of day, and the tops of the hills, illuminated by the level rays, appeared clear and sharp above the ocean of fogs that rolled in the valleys. At last the sun rose in unclouded brilliancy, that “sun of Austerlitz” which he so often apostrophized as illuminating the most splendid periods of his life." [417] It was striking that the face of nature should thus harmonize with that deeper lesson which the Apocalyptic symbol of Bonaparte's victories had conveyed. Rev. xvi. 8, 9.

Bonaparte's intentions in invading England are fully developed in this work: he told Mr. O'Meara, “I would have proclaimed a republic, the abolition of the nobility, and the house of peers, the distribution of the property of such of the latter as opposed me among my partizans; liberty, equality and the sovereignty of the people. I would have let the house of Commons remain, but would have introduced a great reform. I would have separated Ireland from England and left them to themselves after having sown the seeds of republicanism in their morale." See vol. 5, p. 378. It is affecting to think how much has been sought to be done by our own countrymen since the death of Bonaparte in accordance with the wishes of him who had such bitter hatred against us, and wished so much for our destruction.



The pillage of the Papal States by the French in 1797, was such as to drain them of its specie, and to take away all the jewels and precious stones they could find. The French Ambassador wrote to Napoleon stating "discontent is at its highest in the papal states. The payment of 30,000,000, stipulated by the treaty of Tolentino, at the close of so many previous losses, has totally exhausted this old CARCASS. We are making it consume by a slow fire." The very figures of Rev. xvii. 16. See Alison, vol. iii. p. 548.

The Encyclical Letter of Pope Gregory the XVI. bearing date August 16, 1832, (to which public attention has been more directed from the way in which what was called the forgery of a feigned letter was received) is a remarkable exhibition of acknowledged danger, weakness, and decay; connected also, alas, with an awful developement of that state of mind, they repented not to give him glory. Rev. xvi. 9. Were it not needful to warn the [418] church of the signs of the times, and of the evil spirit proceeding from the mouth of the false prophet, (Rev. xvi. 13, 14.) true charity would be glad to be spared the laying open of such evil. This letter assumes the lofty title of our most holy Lord by divine providence, Pope Gregory.” It begins with mourning over a tempest of evils and disasters, and the danger of being overwhelmed by them, and glories in the virgin, as the Patroness and Preserver of the Pope. He says, “This our Roman chair of the blessed Peter in which Christ has placed the main strength of the church is most furiously assailed.” “The Catholic faith is attacked no longer now by a secret undermining, but a horrible and nefarious warfare is openly and avowedly waged against her.” If such be the acknowledged danger, a renouncing of all wickedness is the right course to be pursued, but instead of this we see a firm adherence to all that which has occasioned God's displeasure on Papal countries. The claims of full power of feeding, ruling, and governing the universal church, of the dispensation of the Canons, and of decisions on the fathers; the denunciations against liberty of conscience and liberty of the press; the description of the wicked ravings and schemes of the Waldenses, Beguards, Wicliffites and other sons of Belial" as "the offscourings and disgrace of the human race:" and the close, with a prayer to the Virgin Mary as one swho alone has destroyed all heresies, and is the greatest confidence, even the whole foundation of our hope," and prayer also to Peter and Paul; all these things shew the same impenitent spirit and hard retention of those evil things which have already brought down the past vials of judgments on Papal lands, and are preparing rapidly the way for its final destruction. Oh that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end! The delay of judgment is in great mercy and for salvation to all that turn to God. God is long suffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

But though Popery be consuming as to its resources, there is a temporary revival in its efforts in all parts, particularly in Protestant countries, and a boastfulness of its progress, and a going forth of its friends, quite characteristic of the preparation for the last conflict. A painful specimen of its boasting and exaggerated hopes may be seen in the following extracts from letters of Mr. [419] Phillips, translated from a publication, with authority, at Rome, in 1839. The names of these converts are printed in the Italian publication. I have omitted them, as not wishing to stamp their rejoicing in iniquity with such an appearance of truth in facts; there seems to be, at any rate, very considerable exaggeration.

“LXXV. Already the fruits of these universal prayers (for England) begin to be felt in the extraordinary spirit of research respecting our divine faith, which developes itself from day to day, in a manner felt by both parties to be astonishing, and in two illustrious conversions, which have taken place lately, that of Baron G. S. a Scotch nobleman, who possesses an income of 40,000l. per annum, and of Mr. D- a man of no.ble birth, with an income of at least 30,000l. These conversions have occasioned wonderful feelings. The eldest son of the Baronet, Sir C. W- -, (an illustrious convert at the age of 70, and now at Rome) has written to his father (whilst he remained at Paris,) to announce to him that he has become a Catholic. An apostate priest (whose name I am not yet permitted to give) has returned to the unity of the church. He was a doctor of theology in the English church, and enjoyed an immense reputation amongst the Protestants, whilst he was with them. He has given proof of the sincerity of his conversion by separating from his wife, a lady of noble family.

"I went to see Lord D- (eldest son of the most noble Duke of — whose inclination towards the Catholic religion is well known), during the visit that I made to London. He received me really with pleasure. Religion is to him a subject of lively interest, and I am not without hope of him. The Lord has given him the best of hearts: let us pray for his conversion.

LXXVI. In the neighbourhood of Whitby, in the county of York, there was a numerous congregation of Protestants dissenting from the English church. These proprietors of their own chapel were disgusted with their preacher, and came to the resolution of ceding themselves and their chapel to the Catholic priest. Invited for this purpose, the Rev. Mr. Nicolas Rigley, missionary to Ugthorpe, went there, and immediately

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