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heads, chap. xvii.; the application of the sixth head to the imperial rule in the prophet's time; the single millennium, followed by the loosing of Satan, and the judgment of the rest of the dead at its close. These are also important and leading truths, and, combined with the former, already lead us far towards a true and full understanding of the prophecy. Thirdly, These writers agree in the following corrections of Mede's system. They place all the vials under the seventh trumpet. They reject the chronological meaning of the inner court, as denoting the early times of the church. They distinguish between the image of the beast and the beast himself, and restored the uniform sense of the latter. They assign the first effusion of the vials to the French Revolution; and date the time, times, and a half, either with the decree of Justinian, so as to terminate with the commencement of the vials, or with the time of Phocas, so as to terminate with their close. Lastly, They make the commencement of this mystical period parallel with the first woe, instead of the first trumpet. Fourthly, To these elements of truth, already numerous, the interpretations of Mr. Cuninghame and Mr. Frere, add the following, in which they diverge from Mede and Faber as well as Bengelius. They assign to the series of the seals, the trumpets, and the vision of the woman, a parallel commencement. They extend the seals throughout the dispensation of the gospel. They place the sixth seal parallel with the opening times of the seventh trumpet. They close the time, times, and a half, at the beginning of the vials. They refer the harvest to an ingathering of mercy, as the vintage to a season of wrath. They view the vision of the Son of man, chap. xiv. and of the word of God, chap. xix. as two successive stages of the second personal advent in glory.

It may thus be seen that the variety of interpreters, and their views, is far removed from total uncertainty; and that increasing light has been constantly given. Of forty principles which exhibit the latest advance in prophetic truth, thirteen of the most vital are shared by Bengelius, whose scheme is the most defective, twenty-eight were already held by Mede; half of the remaining [362] twelve are received by the earliest, and the rest by the two later of the three living interpretators who have been most distinguished in this field of inquiry.

The chief remaining elements that need to be combined, for a more complete and full exposition, are the following: The application of the four first seals with Dean Woodhouse and Mr. Cuninghame; the interpretation of the symbolic opening with Mr. Habershon; the meaning of the fourth part with Mr. Faber; the right place of the seventh seal with Mr. Frere;

the true date of the first trumpet with Vitringa; the proper meaning of the second with Daubuz; of the third with Mr. Frere, and of the fourth partly as the same author; the true meaning of the fallen star with Vitringa; the meaning of the third part, the continuity of the sixth trumpet with Bishop Newton; the distinct reference of the temple, the altar, and the worshippers; the time of the death and resurrection with Mr. Fleming and Mr. Elliott; the earthquake with Mr. Frere; the unbroken continuity of chap. xii. with Brightman; the succession of the first and the second beast; the connection of the eagle and the angel messages; the note of time in the number of the beast with Bengelius; the name of the beast in the number with Clarke; the time and succession of the sealing of the tribes, with their historic meaning; the distinctive character of the three main visions; the connection of the times with the 1335 days of Daniel; the transition from the mystery of God and mystical events to the literal Antichrist and personal advent; the full interpretation of the number of the beast on a simple and strict principle, and in all the variety of its significance.

Some have entertained the opinion that there may be a literal recapitulation of the prophecy respecting the Man of Sin and the whole book of Revelation. That Antichrist will at last assume an open and infidel form, seems plain from many scriptures. And it is probable too that part of the book of Revelation may link itself with the Old Testament prophecies, and be finally realized in events more literal, at the recall of the Jews. But there seem to the Author insuperable objections in the structure of the Apocalypse, and the nature of many of its symbols, to such a re-application of the whole. The principles by which such parts might be distinguished would require a research beyond the purpose of the present work.

THE SCHEME OF THE APOCALYPSE.

[363] The siege of Jericho by Joshua contains a concentrated or bird's-eye view, or type, of the history developed in the Revelation. The sealing of the 144,000 is supposed to take place during the whole progress of the dispensation, and the character of successive periods of the church to be typified by the tribes successively named.

VISION OF THE CHURCHES, CHAPTERS I. II. III.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION, CHAPTER IV. [1] THE SEALS.

[2] THE TRUMPETS. [3] THE CHURCH.

THE KINGDOM OF PROVIDENCE.

CHRIST THE LAMB OF GOD.

THE KINGDOM OF

THE WORD;
CHRIST, THE ANGEL OF THE COVE-

NANT.

KINGDOM OF THE
SPIRIT. CHRIST, THE

SON OF MAN.

7, 8.

REUBEN.

ASHER.

their pro

Introduction, ch. v.
Introduction viii. 2

The Travail of 4 to 14. to 6.

Church, xii. 1

to 4. Sealed Book, the SeChrist the Priest.

Birth of the seed of cret Councils of Fire cast on the earth,

the woman, v.5. the World's Re

Luke xii. 49.

Flight to wilderdemption. Warning Earth

ness begun, v. 6. quake.

War in heaven, v.
Seal I. vi. 1, 2. 70. The sealing
Victories of the in Ezek. Trumpet I. viii. 7. Two wit-Satan cast down,v.
Church Militant. ix. x.1 to 7. Gothic invasions, nesses, their 9 to 12. Luke x.

Angel of 7th
250.

character 18.
Trumpet.

and office. Paganism overJUDAH, Trumpet II. viii. 8, Ch. xi. 4 to thrown, 323. 9.

10. Eagle's wings givFall of Rome, 365.

en to the woman, Seal II. vi. 3, 324. GAD,

v. 14, 395. Discord of the

Protection of the Church. Trumpet III. viii.

two empires. Sword sent, Mat. x.

10, 11, 412.

Flood from mouth 34. Heresies of the East.

of Dragon, v.15,

16. Seal III. vi. 5, 6. NAPHTALI,

Trumpet IV. viii. Spiritual Famine of MANASSEH.

Commence- Deluge of Arian 12, 565.

nations.

ment of the Church, 533. Eclipse of Eastern

Commencement of Empire.

1260 days. Seal IV. vi. 7, 8. SIMEON,

Woe Trumpets 1260 phesying. Rise of Beast from Spiritual Desolation levi. days.

the sea, xiii. 1 to of the Church, 1073. Trumpet V. ix. 1 to

10, 476. (For four first seals,

12. 608.

Civil Apostacy of see Zech. vi. 1 to Saracen Woe.

the West. 5.]

Rise of Beast from Trumpet VI. ix. 13

the earth, xiii. Seal V. vi. 9 to 11. ISSACHAR,

to 21, 1063.

11 to 18, 774. Cry of the Martyrs, ZEBULUN. Turkish Woe.

Ecclesiastical Em1438.

Remnant repent not. Revived pro- pire of the West.

phesying. Sealed ones with Christ the Prophet, x.

the Lamb, xiv. Seal VI. vi. 12 to 17. JOSEPH.

1 to 4.

1 to 5. 1789.

Delay no longer. Resurrec- First Angel mesSigns of Wrath.

Prophet rises.

tion and

sage, v. 6, 7. Temple measured. Ascen- Second Angel Seal VII. viji. 1. BENJAMIN. Earthquake warn- sion, v.

message, v. 8. Pause before Judg

ing.

11. 12. Third Angel mesment, 1815. Remnant affrighted.

sage, v. 9 to 11. The Day of Wrath, Close of second woe.

Fourth and Fifth vii. 1-3.

Angels, 14 to 16. Feast of Tabernacles Trumpet vii. xi. 15

The harvest of vii. 9. to 19.

mercy. Ingathering of the Christ the King.

Sixth and Seventh Church, v. 14–17. The Temple opened.

Angels, 17 to 20. Vintage of Wrath. to the Seven Churches relates to contained within the times of the things which were then present.

[4.] THE VIALS.

INTRODUCTION, chap. xv. The Day of Wrath, The temple opened, The Harvest and Vintage, xvi. ver. i. 7. ver. 5, 6.

15, 19. Vial I. xvi. 1, 2.

A grievous sore. Eruption of Infidelity, 1792. Vial II. ver. 3. Sea turned to blood. Anarchy, bloodshed, and massacre

in France, 1793. VIAL III. ver. 4, 7. Rivers turned to blood. Education becomes murderous, 1795. VIAL IV. ver. 8, 9.

Scorching Heat. Imperial Despotism of Napoleon, 1802. Vial V. ver. 10, 11. Kingdom of Beast. Retributive justice on France, 1815. VIAL VI. ver. 12, 16.

Euphrates dried. Ruin of Turkish Empire, 1822. Vial VII. ver. 12 to 17. Fall of Babylon. Battle of Armageddon, and coming of

the Lord. [5.] Vision of First Reveal- [6.] Vision of Christ the [7.] Vision of Last Revealing ing Angel.

Word.

Angei.
xvii. 1. to xix. 10.
xix. 11. to xxi. 8.

xxi. 9. to xxii. 15. THE FALL OF BABYLON. THE APPEARING AND KINGDOM THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM. 3D woe.

OF CHRIST.
GENERAL CLOSE, XXII. 16 to 21.

[364] SUGGESTED GENERAL AXIOMS OF THE INTERPRETATION

OF THE APOCALYPSE.

I.-GENERAL SCOPE. 9 The Judgment, Rev. xix., is the

same with that in Dan. vii.
1 The Apocalypse is a prophecy of 10 The vision, Rev. xix., describes

things future in the time of the the second coming of Christ.
apostle.

11 The Millennium, in chap. xx.,
2 It is a prophecy reaching to the follows the second advent, and

end of all things, and the eternal begins the visible kingdom of
kingdom of Christ.

Christ on earth.
3 The opening vision in the address 12 The Apocalypse, chap. iv-xix. is

fourth or Roman Empire. Ch. i. 19.

13 The passage xvii. 7—18, is one of 4 The Angelic Vision, chap. iv. l- direct interpretation, and its notes

xxii., relates to things which were of time to be referred to the very next to follow.

time of the prophecy. 5 The prophecy is continuous be- 14 Babylon in the Apocalypse denotes tween these two limits.

Rome, or some power having its 6 The four Beasts, Dan, vii., denote seat and centre at Rome.

the Babylonian, Medo-Persian, 15 The vision of chap. iv. v. dates Grecian and Latin or Roman from the Ascension of our Lord. Empires.

16 The first seal dates from the fall 7 The coming of the Son of Man, of Jerusalem or nearly.

Dan. vii., is the second advent of 17 The last vial coincides in time with Christ.

the fall of Rome in its latest stage. 8 The kingdom of the Son of Man, 18 The visions, chap. iv-xvi., are

Dan. vii., is a future visible included within the Ascension earthly and glorious kingdom of and the fall of Rome except in Christ.

their very close,

11.-STRUCTURE.

the revived beast, chap. xiii. xvii.

xi., are the rising Latin empire, 19 The Apocalypse is composed, chap. the united Roman empire, and

i. 19, of the things seen, chap. 1., the revived Latin empire of the
the things then present, chap. ii. west.
iii., and ihe things to be hereafter. 38 The False Prophet is the same
chap.iv—xxii.

with the little horn, in Dan. vii. 20 The last of these alone are direct39. The False Prophet denotes the

prophecy, and were signified to Ecclesiastical Latin empire, or
the apostle in visions by an angel, Papacy.
ch. i. 1; iv. l; xxii. 8, 9.

40 The Harlot or Babylon in the 21 The angelic visions are seven. stage, ch. xvii., is the same with

The seals, ch. V-vii. The the image of the beast.
trumpets, viii-ix. The woman 41 Babylon denotes the Romish
and her seed, xii-xiv. The church.
vials, xv. xvi. The fall of Baby- 42 The Woman denotes the Apos-
lon, xvii. '1; xix. 9. The judg- tolic church.
ment, xix. 10; xxi. 8. The hea- 43 The sealed tribes denote Apostolic

venly Jerusalem, xxi. 9; xxii. 7. Christians through the times of 22 The prophecy is successive from

the New Testament. ch. xviii. to the close.

44 The palm-bearing multitude de23 The ordinals in each sevenfold notes the church in final triumph.

series are strictly successive in
time.

IV.-CHRONOLOGY. 24 The vision, ch. xii-xiv. has its

three parts continuous and suc- 45 The number of the beast is a mark cessive.

of time besides its other charac25 The events of ch. vii. are those of

ters, and forms a transition from the seventh seal.

the mystical to the literal reckon26 The passage xi. 4–10, is a narra

ing. tive parenthesis, and no part of 46 The time, times, and half a time, the vision.

the 42 months, and 1260 days are 27 The vision, x. xi. 15, falls entirely 47 The time, times, and half of

the same interval. within the sixth trumpet. 28 The three first visions close with

Daniel, and the Revelation are the time of the last vial or after.

the same period. 29 They date from the opening of the 48 A prophetic day is a natural year. prophecy, and are parallel.

49 The three-and-a-half times are the 30 The vials commence with the time half of seven times, the whole of the seventh trumpet.

season of Gentile power, and the 31 The sealing is successive, and

same with the latter times of St. reaches through the trumpets to

Paul. the last.

50 A time denotes 360 years, and 32 The siege of Jericho is a divine Xpovos is equivalent to

καιρος. . type, and a full key to the struc

V.-DETAIL OF APPLICATION. ture.

The following result simply from the III.-PARTICULAR APPLICA

combination of the above. TION.

51 The 4 first trumpets contain the

judgments that fell on the Roman 33 The third woe is the open judg- empire from the 1st century to

ment of God's enemies, Babylon, the rise of the Saracens,
the Beast, the False Prophet, 52 The third part denotes uniformly

and the Dragon, ch. xviii-xx. the third or eastern empire, the 34 The two first woes are the Sara- fourth part, the fourth or western cens and the Turks.

empire. 35 The False Prophet is the same 53 The first trumpet relates to the with the two-horned beast.

Gothic eruptions before Constan36 The beast throughout is in the 8th tine. or revived form.

54 The second trumpet relates to the 37 The 4th beast, in Dan. vii., the fall of the Latin emperorship of

body of the dragon, ch. xii., and Rome.

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