Principles of Political Economy

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D. Appleton, 1887 - 670 стор.
 

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Pragmatic or muddled? Mill sets out to explore economic principles but, ultimately, finds that there is no principle which doesn't have any amount of conceivable exceptions. You have to wonder why its ... Читати огляд повністю

Зміст

Fundamental Propositions respecting Capital
74
Effects of defraying government expenditure by loans
83
Fixed and Circulating Capital what
93
Of Causes affecting the Efficiency of Production
99
Froduction on a large and production on a small scale
108
By what checks the increase of population is practically limited
115
Movement of Population Center westward
116
Motive for saving in the strength of the effective desire of accumula
122
Receipts Expenses and Profits of all Railways in the State of New York
128
Miles of Railroad in Operation and Miles added each Year in the United States
129
Of the Law of the Increase of Production from Land
130
3 in railways
136
Proportion of Miles of Railroad to the Square Mile in the United States and Europe face
140
4 in manufactures
141
risi
144
4 nor by emigration
150
Density of Foreignborn Population in the United States
152
Of Property
155
Of various minor schemes Communistic and Socialistic
165
Froperty in land different from property in movables
171
2 The Wagesfund and the objections to it considered
177
Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages
183
Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a laboringclass
190
would require as a condition legal measures for repression of popu
196
Twofold means of elevating the habits of the laboringpeople by edu
202
Differences arising from natural monopolies
210
Chapter V Of Profits
216
The cause of the existence of any profit the advances of capitalists
225
Of Bent
232
Opposing views to the law of rent
240
Definitions of Value in Use Exchange Value and Price
249
Commodities limited in quantity governed by the law of Demand
254
The Value of these commodities conform in the long run to their
261
Profits an element in Cost of Production
267
Occasional elements in Cost of Production taxes and groundrent
275
Rent of mines and fisheries and groundrent of buildings and cases
282
Gold and Silver why fitted for those purposes
290
Production of Gold and Silver
307
Objections to a double standard
312
Relative Values of Gold and Silver
319
Credit not a creation but a transfer of the means of production
325
Origin and explanation of the notion of general oversupply
369
Of International Trade
379
4 not in a vent for exports nor in the gains of merchants
386
The values of foreign commodities depend not upon Cost of Produc
392
The conclusion stated in the Equation of International Demand
398
Exports and Imports of Specie from and into the United States
408
Of the Competition of Different Countries in the tame
450
Low wages enable a country to undersell another when peculiar
457
Cotton Crops under Free and Slave Labor
459
Low profits as affecting the carrying trade
463
In the law of rent
469
Influence of the Progress of Industry and Population
475
4 that tendency from time to time counteracted by improvements
484
The arts of production advancing capital and population stationary
491
Changes in the Rank of the States in respect of Population
495
Of the Tendency of Profits to a Minimum
497
5 by improvements in production
506
Grain Crops of the United States
509
7 by the emigration of capital
510
Stationary state of wealth and population dreaded by some writers
514
The possibility of improvement while laborers remain merely receivers
518
Distributive Cooperation
524
7 Peoples Banks
532
Grounds of the principle of Equality of Taxation
539
Taxes falling on capital not necessarily objectionable
548
An IncomeTax
555
A tax on all commodities would fall on profits
562
how modified by the tendency of profits to a minimum
568
Effects produced on international exchange by duties on exports
574
Comparison between Direct and Indirect Taxation
583
Taxation systems of the United States and other countries
590
Of a National Debt
596
In what cases desirable to maintain a surplus revenue for the redemp
602
Reduction of National Debts in Various Countries
604
Of an Interference of Government grounded on Erro
605
4 on the ground of encouraging young industries colonial policy
612
Occupations of People of the United States
619
on the ground of creating a diversity of industries
621
Atpendix I
631
Examination Questions
637
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Сторінка 536 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as Little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
Сторінка 536 - The subjects of every State ought to contribute to the support of the Government as nearly as possible in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the State.
Сторінка 536 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor, and to every other person.
Сторінка 610 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
Сторінка 108 - Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day.
Сторінка 108 - I have seen a small manufactory of this kind, where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.
Сторінка 210 - A mason or bricklayer, on the contrary, can work neither in hard frost nor in foul weather, and his employment at all other times depends upon the occasional calls of his customers. He is liable, in consequence, to be frequently without any. What he earns, therefore, while he is employed, must not only maintain him while he is idle, but make him some compensation for those anxious and desponding moments which the thought of so precarious a situation must sometimes occasion.
Сторінка 177 - sacredness of property" is talked of, it should always be remembered, that any such sacredness does not belong in the same degree to landed property. No man made the land. It is the original inheritance of the whole species. Its appropriation is wholly a question of general expediency. When private property in land is not expedient, it is unjust.
Сторінка 590 - The schoolboy whips his taxed top; the beardless youth manages his taxed horse, with a taxed bridle, on a taxed road ; and the dying Englishman, pouring his medicine, which has paid...
Сторінка 163 - If, therefore, the choice were to be made between Communism with all its chances, and the present state of society with all its sufferings and injustices; if the institution of private property...

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