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29. Revenue system of the United States. The countries in which direct

taxation tends to supersede those which are indirect, are those which have

protected themselves against the British system. Failure of the United States

in this respect

191

2 10. The more direct the taxation, the less will be its proportion to production, 192

2 11. Revenue system of Central and Northern Europe. Tendency towards

direct taxation......

193

$ 12. The more rapid the circulation, the less the power for interference with

commerce, by means of indirect taxes, and the greater the tendency towards

improvement in the condition of man

195

2 13. Why not, then, at once abolish all indirect taxation ? Because the power

of direct taxation being an evidence of that high civilization which is

marked by the near approach of the prices of rude products and finished

commodities — cannot be exercised in any country that has not prepared for

it, by placing consumers and producers in close proximity to each other 198

& 14. The more perfect the power to apply directly to the land and labor of the

country, the greater is the strength of the State

201

15. Preference of British economists for indirect taxation ....

202

2 16. Wide difference between the doctrines of modern economists, and those

of Adam Smith

205

$ 17. Protection looks to increasing the value of land and labor, and thus cre-

ating the power of direct taxation. Interferences with commerce for merely

revenue purposes, look to the permanence of indirect taxation. The first

tends towards concentration and freedom. The last, towards centralization,

and the extension of slavery among mankind ..

..... 206

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2 1. In the absence of competition for the purchase of labor-power, the laborer

becomes enslaved. That power the only commodity that cannot be preserved,

even for an instant, beyond the moment of its production

233

§ 2. The more the competition for the purchase of labor, the more rapid the cir-

culation, the larger the production, and the greater the power of accumulation, 234

83. Competition for the purchase of labor tends toward freedom. The trader

desires to produce competition for its sale

235

& 4. Trading centralization secks to produce competition for the sale of raw

materials and labor. Therefore adverse to the growth of value in land

or man. Stoppage of the circulation the mode by which it produces the

effect desired. How it operates in the free trade countries of the world...... 237

2 5. Effect of trading centralization upon the condition of the British people, 242

26. How protection produces competition for the purchase of labor. The

free-trade system looks to producing competition for its sale. Results of

American experience

246

2 7. Increasing competition for the sale of raw materials, in all purely agricul-

tural countries. Growth of competition for their purchase, in the protected

countries of Europe

247

2 8. Trading centralization deteriorates the condition of the laborers of the

world. Necessity for resistance thereto

248

2 9. Freedom of commerce grows in those countries which have adopted mea-

sures of protection against the British system

251

2 10. Harmony of the real interests of all mankind. All nations interested in

the adoption of measures tending to promote competition for the purchase of

raw materials and labor........

251

2 11. The two communities which claim to be leaders in the cause of freedom,

those whose measures tend to produce competition for the sale of labor -

thus extending slavery. The despotic countries of Europe, on the contrary,

those whose measures look to competition for its purchase — thus extending

freedom........

253

$ 12. Competition for the control of nature's services raises the value of both

land and man ..............

254

2 13. Competition for the purchase of labor produces demand for the higher

human faculties, and thus raises the standard of man. Competition for its

sale produces the reverse effect

255

..........

CHAPTER XLVI.

OF POPULATION.

2 1. That the earth may be subdued, man must multiply and increase. — Ten-

dency to assume the various forms of life greatest at the lowest point of

organization. Fecundity and development in the inverse ratio of each other.

Man, the being of highest development, should, therefore, increase but very

slowly. Time required for the duplication of population. However long

that period, if the procreative tendency is a fixed and positive quantity,

always liable to be excited into action, the time must arrive when there will

be but standing-room for the population. Is it so ? Can the Creator have

subjected man to laws, in virtue of which he must become the slave of nature

and of his fellow-man? ..........................

263

& 2. Physical science testifies that order, harmony, and reciprocal adjustment,

reign throughout all the realms it has yet explored. Modern economists

have mistaken facts for laws. Laws are rules, permanent, uniform, and uni-

versal, in their action. Theory of Mr. Malthus deficient in all these charac

teristics. The procreative function, in common with all others, placed under

the law of circumstances and conditions. Law of human life must be assumed

to be in harmony with the Creator's design. Are war and pestilence required

for correcting errors of the Creator, or has the Creator so adjusted the pro-

creative tendency as to provide the means of correcting human error? No

instance, throughout nature's realm, in which the laws of the subject break

the harmony of the scheme of creation. Not the divine order, but man's

disorder, that limits his earthly life so far within the period of utility and

enjoyment

265

2 3. Power of progress in the ratio of dissimilarity of the parts and perfection

of organization. Man, therefore, the being most susceptible of change-

passing from the merely animal man, and becoming the real van, responsible

to his family, his fellow-man, and his Creator. Responsibility grows with

the growing power of association, and with division of the land

273

& 4. Growth of population modified by the development of that feeling of

responsibility which comes with the ownership of land. Facts presented for

consideration by the countries of Central and Northern Europe — those in

which employments are becoming more diversified, and in which the prices

of rude products and finished commodities most tend to approach cach

other ..........

.... 276

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25. Phenomena exhibited by the purely agricultural countries — those which

follow in the lead of Britain. Recklessness and poverty consequent upon

absence of diversity in the modes of employment, and consolidation of the

land. Adaptability of the procreative power to the circumstances in which a

community is placed

............. 281

& 6. Consolidation of the land, and the disease_of_oxer-populations necessary

consequences of a policy which looks to the cheapening of labor, and of the

rude products of the earth. British system tends to the production of these

effects. Its results, as exhibited in the condition of the English people ...... 287

27. Pioneer life favorable to increase of numbers. The American system,

here as every where, one of contrasts — localization being the theory, and

centralization the practice. Effects, as exhibited in the duration of life ...... 293

2 8. Reproductive function not a constant quantity. Adjusted to the various

conditions of the race. Nature's pledge of harmony between the rate of pro-

creation and subsistence. General predominance of the nutritive and sexual

functions. Antagonism of the animal propensities and higher sentiments.

Special opposition between the nervous and sexual functions. Fertility of

the drudges of an imperfect civilization. Infertility of the hunter tribes.

Activity of the intellect checks procreation. Cerebral and generative powers

of man mature together. Fecundity in the inverse ratio of organization,

Facts presented by physiology. Cerebral power of woman abated by the

uterine function. Various effects of the different mental and moral qualities.

Relation of fecundity and mortality. A self-acting law of population secures

/

harmony in the growth of numbers and of food. Prospective changes in the

ratio of procreation, tending to promote the highest welfare of the race ...... 296

2 9. In the physical world, the most important effects due to the slow but steady

action of minute and almost unseen machinery — the coral insect making

changes that are permanent, while the elephant leaves behind him no evi-

dence of his existence. So, too, in the social world — the Creator having

there provided such machinery for carrying into full effect the purposes of

man's creation. Wars, pestilerices, and famines, not required. Over-popu-

lation theory an effort to account for the consequences of human error, by

means of supposed error of man's Creator.

308

2 10. Harmony in the social, as in the physical' world, a result of the equal

action of opposing forces. The more perfect the balance, the greater the

tendency towards development of the real man, and towards harmony be-

tween the demands upon the earth, and her power to meet demands 312

lation driving men back to the poorer ones. Increase in the regularity of

the supply of the necessaries of life, consequent upon the increased demands

of a population that is growing in numbers and in power. Diminution in

the waste of human force that attends increase in the supply of food

......... 313

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