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27. Destructive effects of British policy, in causing the exhaustion of the

countries that follow in the lead of her economists. Tendency, in all of them,

towards centralization, slavery, and death

324

3 8. Simplicity and beauty of the laws which regulate the demand for food,

and its supply. Perfect harmony, throughout nature, in the adaptation of

means to ends

...... 325

CHAPTER XLVIII.

OF COLONIZATION.

§ 1. Early colonization. Tendency to increase accompanied by a tendency to

spread, in both the vegetable and social world. Local and central attraction, 328

3 2. Nature goes on adding perfection to perfection, from the poles to the

tropics. Richer soils of the world as yet unoccupied — nature being there

all-powerful. With the growth of wealth and population, man is enabled to

turn against her such of her forces as he has mastered — passing, steadily,

from triumph to triumph, and subjugating more fertile soils

330

23. Manufactures always precede, and never follow, the creation of a real

agriculture. The country that exports its soil, in the form of rude products,

must end in the export of men. The more equal the balance of the opposing

forces, the greater the power to cultivate the richer soils. Trading centrali-

zation tends to annihilation of local centres, exhaustion of the soil, and de-

struction of the value of land and man. Protection has for its object the

establishment of counter-attraction

...... 333

4. Variable policy of the United States. General tendency towards exhaus-

tion of the soil, and the production of a necessity for emigration. Diminu-

2 1. Constant tendency, according to Mr. Malthus, in all animated life, to in.

crease beyond the nourishment prepared for it. Facts, however, prove that

supply is, every where, a consequence of demand — the quantity of food pre-

pared for beings of every kind, being practically unlimited. Increase of

numbers, and of power, attended by increased ability to make demand, as

shown in all the advancing nations of the earth. Laws of nature vindicate

the ways of God to man

349

2 2. Misery and vice attributed to deficiency in the powers of the earth to fur-

nish food to increasing numbers. May they not, on the contrary, be attrib-

uted to failure in man to qualify himself to make demands upon the earth ?

Facts of history prove the difficulty to lie with man himself, and not in errors

of the Creator

352

23. Mr. Malthus gives facts, and calls them science. Science demands prin-

ciples — asking, Why it is, that such things are ? Failure of Mr. Malthus to

establish "the one great cause" of the various facts observed. Cause and

effect constantly changing places with each other, throughout his work. His

Principle of Population a mere form of words, indicating the existence of

an altogether imaginary fact.....

354

2 4. His great and universal remedy for the disease of over-population. Inap-

plicable in the cases by him described. Prudence and foresight recommended

by writers, who commence by destroying in their readers all feeling of hope

in the future. Injurious character of the teachings of the Malthusian school.

Real moral restraint comes with the development of individuality, resulting

from diversity in the demands for human powers. British system tends to

prevent that development, and thus produces the disease described by Mr.

Malthus

360

$ 5. Responsibility grows with the growth of the gifts of God to man. Poor

laborer the slave of circumstances, yet held responsible for his acts. Ten-

dency of the Malthusian doctrine to shift responsibility from the rich and

strong, to the poor, the weak, and the uninstructed.

364

8 1. Relations of the sexes. Woman a slave to man, in the early stages of

society. Her condition improves as wealth and population grow, and as the

real man is more developed. The more rapid the societary circulation, and

the greater the tendency towards the creation of a scientific agriculture, the

more does the sex tend towards occupying its true position

368

§ 2. Condition of woman in Greece, Italy, and France, at various periods.

Centralization tends to its deterioration. Phenomena observed in Central

and Northern Europe. Woman rises in the scale as land becomes divided,

and man becomes more free

372

& 3. Saxon women sold to slavery. General improvement in the condition of

the women of England. Loss of the rights of property secured to them by

the early English law. Deterioration of the condition of the sex, in all the

countries that follow in the train of England ....

374

& 4. How the condition of English women is affected by trading centralization.

Growing competition for the sale of female labor. Consequent low wages,

and necessity for resorting to prostitution. Protection tends to produce com-

petition for its purchase — thereby benefiting the sex throughout the world .. 378

ê 5. Extraordinary contrasts presented by the condition of the sex in the seve-

ral portions of the American Union. Theory of the government favorable to

the creation of local centres, and to the elevation of the sex. Its practice,

tending towards centralization, adverse thereto, and hence the rapid growth

of female crime and prostitution

383

1. Commerce of the State. Solidarity of the human race. Two-fold nature

of man. Correspondence between the structure and functions of the indi.

vidual man, and the aggregate man denominated Society. Co-ordin ng

office of the brain. Its power limited by the necessary liberty of the indi-

vidual organs. Various degrees of subordination of the parts. Checks and

balances of the system, correspond to those of civil government. Necessity

for exercise of the power of co-ordination grows, in individuals and societies,

as the organization becomes more complete. Local centres of the physical

and social systems. Power and duties of the brain. Correspondence of

those of civil government. Government among spontaneities. Order and

liberty combined and secured. Graduated and federated system of govern-

ment, in the human body, analogous to the political organization of that

social one which constitutes the United States

401

§ 2. Social science here branches into political economy - the one treating of

natural laws, and the other of the measures required for enabling those laws

to bave full effect. Relation of science and art, as exhibited by M. Comte.

Necessity for exercise of the power of co-ordination. Duties to be performed,

in reference to the social body, the same with those that, in the physical

one, arc assigned to the brain. The more perfect the co-ordination, the

more complete, in both, the development of all the parts, and the more har-

monious the action of the whole. Tendency to the creation of local centres.

The more perfect the balance of opposing forces, the greater the tendency !

towards human freedom. Duty of the co-ordinating power limited to the

removal of obstacles to association

... 409

3. Universal tendency towards association. Joint-stock companies. Acts

of incorporation. Limitation of liability. Correspondence of the societary

action with the natural laws instituted for man's government. Monopolies.

Early appearance, among the Greeks and Romans, of corporations for politi-

cal and commercial purposes. Limitation of liability throughout the Roman

empire. With growing centralization and declining civilization, limitation

disappears. Consequent disappearance of local governments, followed by

ruin of the empire. Gradual revival of local institutions. Effect of their

re-appearance, in facilitating commerce, promoting the development of

individuality, and aiding in the re-establishment of regular government.

American civil polity distinguished by the prevalence and diversity of corpo-

rations. Organization necessary to association. Societary movement be-

comes more rapid as the power of combination becomes more complete.

Power of the trader declines as men are more enabled to associate. Buying

and selling an array of hostile interests — all idea of harmony or equity being

excluded. Harmony grows as the producer and the consumer take their

places by each other-discord, on the contrary, growing, as they become more

widely separated.

415

& 4. Colbert and his policy. His full appreciation of the necessity for the

exercise, by the State, of a power of co-ordination. Hume, on the necessity

for preserving with care the manufactures of a nation. Adam Smith no

advocate of the indiscriminate adoption of the system of laisser faire. Say,

Rossi, Mill, and others, on the duties of a government, in reference to diver-

sification of the pursuits of the people over whom it is placed .............. 424

& 5. M. Chevalier. His approval of the protective system. Within certain

limits, governments, being the personification of nations, are but performing

a positive duty, when they favor the taking possession of all the branches of

industry whose acquisition is authorized by the nature of things. Holds that

French agriculture has ceased to be protected. Inaccuracy of the view thus

presented. Accuracy of his views in reference to the small product of

American agriculture. Heavy taxation of American farmers, and compara-

tive exemption of those of France. Freedom of trade enjoyed by the latter,

as compared with the restrictions on the former. Causes of these differences, 425

26. The world word-governed — unmeaning phrases being made objects of

world-worship. Tyranny of governments whose theory is that of laisser faire.

Governments oppressive in the ratio of failure to exercise their powers of co-

ordination. Errors of modern economists. Gigantio communism a conse-

quence of the British system. Real import of the doctrine of laisser faire.

Necessity for exercise of the co-ordinating power grows with the growth of

wealth and numbers. The more perfect the power of association within the

State, the greater the power of its people to contribute to the commerce of

the world

...... 435

to maintain commerce is in the ratio of development — that becoming more

complete, as the power of co-ordination is more discreetly exercised .......... 445

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