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that were bidden to the wedding; and they would not come. Again, 4 he sent forth other servants, saying: Tell them which are bidden: Behold, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready; come unto the marriage. But they made 5 light of it, and went their ways; one to his farm, another to his merchandise. And the remnant took his servants, and entreated them 6 spitefully, and slew them. But when the king heard thereof, he was 7 wroth; and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burned up their city. Then saith he to his servants: The wed- 8 ding is ready, but they which were bidden were not worthy. Go ye, 9 therefore, into the highways, and as many as ye shall find bid to the marriage. So those servants went out into the highways, and gather- 10

3. Call them that were bidden. It Pharisees, chief priests and elders has been said by some critics, that of the people, were not satisfied it was an ancient usage to invite the with silent neglect and contempt, guests sometime beforehand, and but proceeded to open acts of hosthen summon them again to the en- tility against Jesus and his Apostertaininent, when it was nearly tles.-Entreated them spitefully. Or, ready. An allusion seems here to rather, treated them injuriously, barbe made to two invitations.

barously. 4. Sent forth other servants. There 7. Destroyed those murderers, &c. is a moral significance to this fea- There is an evident allusion here to ture in the parable. For God suf- the destruction of the Jewish peofereth long and is kind, and urges ple by the Roman armies, and the his messages of love repeatedly burning of their temple and city. upon the attention of mankind, The cause of these national calainthrough various dispensations, and ities was national wickedness. A by the ceaseless flow of his bless- long series of crimes and injuries ings.—My dinner, i. e. my feast, committed, even against the ineswithout reference to the time of sengers and Son of God, had “ treasday.-Fallings, i. e. fatted animals, ured up wrath against the day of of whatever kind. It was agreea- wrath, and revelation of the rightble to ancient simplicity to speak eous judgment of God." The eterthus familiarly. Similar instances nal law thus vindicated itself with are frequent in Homer, one of the such awful sureness, that the chooldest poets in the world.

sen people themselves became but 5, 6. It was considered a breach the more notorious examples of its of the law of God, and an affront execution. of the greatest indignity, to neglect 9. Highways. Rather, crossings a marriage festivity. Two classes of the streets, or thoroughfares. It are here described, the trifling and was customary with the rich men worldly, the malignant and persecu- among the Jews, to invite all destiting. The bulk of the Jews heeded tute strangers and travellers to their not the Gospel invitation, because feasts. Jesus refers, in this part of they were devoted to business and the parable, to the preaching of the pleasure; but some, the Scribes and Gospel to the Gentiles,

ed together all, as many as they found, both bad and good; and the 11 wedding was furnished with guests. And when the king came in to

see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding gar12 ment; and he saith unto him: Friend, how camest thou in hither, not 13 having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. Then said the

king to the servants: Bind him hand and foot, and take him away,

and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing 14 of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen. 15 Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entan


ment. was

10. Both bad and good, i. e. all to confinement in a dark dungeon.

-Weeping and gnashing of teeth. 11. Which had not on a wedding Images of grief and despair on acgarment. Those who attended up count of the disgrace and mortifion such an occasion were expect- cation of being expelled from the ed to appear in an appropriate gar- nuptial feast.

The usual marriage dress 14. See notes on Mat. xx. 1–16.

a white embroidered robe. All who come are not improved. According to many authorities, it There are many called guests, but was customary for the host to pro- few chosen or choice ones. Multivide rich clothes for his guests, and tudes are invited to become Christo refuse to wear them would be a tians, but how few are really posgross insult. Instances are cited sessors as well as professors of the from Homer, Diodorus Siculus, and Christian life, hearty doers as well modern travellers. Gen. xlv. 22. as hearers of the word of God! 2 Kings v. 22, x. 22. Esth. viii. 15. 15–33. Parallel to Mark xii. 13 It is required of every Christian, that 27. Luke xx. 20–38. he be clothed with humility, and all 15. Then. After the official delthe graces of the spiritual life, else egation from the Sanhedrim, chap. his presence will be impertinent in xxi. 23, had availed nothing, it the guest-chamber of his Lord. would appear that they counselled

12. And he was speechless. He privately together to accomplish his had no excuse to offer for himself, ruin.-Entangle., A word, in the for he had neglected to clothe him- original, having reference to the self with the garment provided by ensnaring of birds in a net. The the hospitality of his entertainer. force of the words would be imHis sordid dress was not therefore proved by leaving out his, which an indication of poverty, which was the work of the translators, as would have been excusable, but an is indicated by the Italics. The evidence of contempt or indiffer- priests and scribes wished to draw ence towards the king.

from him some expressions in con13. Cast him into outer darkness. versation that would furnish ground See note on Mat. viii. 12. As en for accusation against him, either tertainments were given in cheer with the Romans or the Jews, and ful, illuminated rooms, to be driven finally procure his death. We have, out from them was to be thrust into in the remainder of this chapter, an the cold and darkness. In connex account of successive attempts, ion with the binding of hand and made by the leading classes of Jewfoot, reference is thought to be made ish society, the Herodians, Phari

gle him in his talk. And they sent out unto him their disciples, with 16 the Herodians, saying: Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man ; for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us, therefore, what thinkest 17 thou ? is it lawful to give tribute unto Cæsar, or not? But Jesus per- 18 ceived their wickedness, and said: Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites ? Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny. 19 And he saith unto them: Whose is this image and superscription ? 20

sees, Sadducees, and Lawyers, to ef- rest of their conquered provinces, fect this object, and their total fail was excessively galling to the Jewure and discomfiture.

ish pride. It became a much agi16. Their disciples, with the Hero- tated question, whether it was condians. The Pharisees sent their sistent with the Mosaic law to pay emissaries, with the Herodians, who this tax or not. Josephus relates, are supposed to have been a politi- that Judas, a Galilean, Acts v. 37, cal party, and disposed to uphold raised a revolt, partly on this acthe dominion of the Romans over count, saying that the taxation was the Jews, and who were favorable no better than an introduction to to the adoption of Gentile manners slavery. It was this question, with and customs. Mat. xvi. 6. Mark collateral and aggravating circumviii. 15. Although the two sects stances, which drove the Jews into were hostile to each other, they bu. their last fatal conflict with Rome. ried their mutual animosities to The inquiry seemed to involve Jeunite in a common attack upon sus in a dilemma from which he Jesus. We know that thou art true, could not escape. For, if he an&c. According to Luke xx. 20, these swered in the affirmative, his reply spies were to “feign themselves would conflict with the Mosaic law, just men,” that they might thus the Deut. xvii. 15; but if in the negamore successfully entrap him, and tive, he would give occasion to be deliver him up to the civil author- charged with sedition against the ity. In pursuance of this plan, they Roman government, Luke xxiii. 2. address him with an insincere, But his wisdom was superior to the though deserved eulogium. For of wiles of his enemies. whom, more than of Jesus, could it 18. Wickedness. More particularever be said, that he was true, taughtly, malice, craft.—Hypocrites. Disthe truth, and regarded neither the semblers. Pretending, with great frowns nor the flatteries of men ? deference to his authority, to ask Beautiful testimony of his enemies his decision, they were solely actuto his unsurpassed rectitude, and ated by a desire to entangle him in dauntle moral courage!

difficulty. 17. Is it lawful to give tribute unto 19. Tribute money. The coin in Cesar? The Roman emperors which the tax was paid.-A penny. were called by this appellation after A denarius; a Roman silver piece Julius Cæsar, who first attained the of about fourteen cents. imperial dignity, Tiberius Cæsar 20. Whose is this image and suwas at this time on the throne. The perscription ? Or, inscription. The tribute which the Romans exacted image was the head of the empefrom Judea, in common with the ror. The inscription was, CÆSAR

21 They say unto him: Cæsar's. Then saith he unto them : Render,

therefore, unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's; and unto God the 22 things that are God's. When they had heard these words, they mar

velled; and left him, and went their way. 23 The same day came to him the Sadducees, which say that there is 24 no resurrection; and asked him, saying: Master, Moses said: “If a

man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and 25 raise up seed unto his brother.” Now there were with us seven breth

AUGUSTUS; OF SUBJECT JUDEA. to the Most High, and should be It is said that Julius Cæsar first employed in his service. Man's dustamped his image on the Roman ties to human and Divine governcoin. The invention was originally ments do not clash. Jesus intimates Persian.

that the tribute was due to Cæsar, 21. Render, therefore, unto Cæsar, but that they ought not to sacrifice &c. Jesus drew his answer from their religion to any human

power. the coin itself. As it had the Ro- He therefore silenced both parties, man emperor's image and inscrip- the seditious Pharisees, who were tion upon it, it was an evidence that opposed to acknowledging their it was his, and therefore to be paid subjection to Rome, and the irreliin tribute to him; for Roman coin gious Herodians, who were in facould only circulate in Judea when vor of sacrificing religion itself to the land had become subject to the their masters. He not only escaped Roman government. It was a max the difficulty, but gave a wise and im of the Jewish schools, that, satisfactory answer, titted to guide wheresoever the money of any the doubting in the way of their king is current, there the inhabit- duty. The knotty question was ants acknowledge that king for solved. His enemies departed in their lord. Since, therefore, it was confusion and wonder at his answer. proved, by the very fact of the coin, 23. The Sadducees. See note on that they were a conquered peo- Mat. iii. 7.There is no resurrection. ple, they could do no less than pay One of the articles of their belief. tribute to their conquerors.-And Acts xxiii. 8. Jesus scarcely overunto God the things that are God's. comes one difficulty, ere another is Referring, probably, to the annual presented to him. Gratified with tribute due to his temple, of half a his victory over their old foes, the shekel, twenty-eight cents. This Pharisees, the Sadducees, with selfadmirable answer has passed into a sufficient pride, make their assault. proverb. The same thought is am 24. Deut. xxv. 5, 6. This was the plified in Romans xiii. 7. Whilst Levirate law, so called, which was the citizen maintains his allegiance designed to preserve estates in the to the powers that be, he is also to same family, and continue families render that service to God which is and tribes distinct from each other. his due. The image of princes –Raise up seed unto his brother, i. e. stamped on their coin denotes that the children should be reckoned in temporal things belong to their the genealogy of the deceased brothgovernment. The image of God er, and enjoy his estate. It is not an stamped on the soul denotes that exact quotation, but the substance of all its faculties and powers belong the law.

ren; and the first, when he had married a wife, deceased ; and, having no issue, left his wife unto his brother. Likewise the second also; 26 and the third, unto the seventh. And last of all the woman died also. 27 Therefore, in the resurrection, whose wife shall she be of the seven ? 28 for they all had her. Jesus answered and said unto them: Ye do err, 29 not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God. For in the resur- 30 rection, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. But, as touching the resurrection of the 31 dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying: “I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God 32 of Jacob?” God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. And 33 when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine.

25. Seven brethren. Perhaps a dentally confirms the belief in the supposed case, one too which they existence of angels, a point which might have often employed against the Sadducees denied. the Pharisees, in their controversy 31, 32. Jesus proceeds, after havabout a future state.-Seven is an ing rebutted their objection, to proindefinite number, of frequent use pose an argument level to their among the Jews.

comprehension, and drawn from 28. In the resurrection, i. e. in the the Scriptures, which they acfuture state. The prevalent notions knowledged, in, proof of a resurof another life seem to have been rection. I am the God of Abraham, very gross, and little raised above &c. Ex. iii. 6, 15, 16, Heb. xi. 16. the actual condition of man in this This declaration was made Jong world.

after Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob 29. Ye do err, i. e. you deceive had died. As God could not with yourselves, by not considering the any propriety be called the God of Scriptures, which, as Jesus shows that which does not exist, the conin verse 32, contain traces of the clusion is a strong one, that, as he doctrine of immortality; and by not called himself their God, they did reflecting on the power of God, exist in another state of being. He who is able to raise the dead, and to does not say, I was, but, I am, the form a new state, different from the God of Abraham. This was pecupresent one.

liarly a Jewish mode of reasoning. 30. In the resurrection, they neither The Sadducees find themselves surmarry, &c. The relations of the passed with their own weapons of present life, and the appetites of the ingenuity and attack, and the people body, will not exist there. Are as at large were astonished at the wonthe angels. Luke says, “they are derful strength of Jesus' teaching, equal unto the angels," a general ex- which prostrated before it the most pression, to describe their similarity subtle objections and wily strataas it respects the necessities of the gems of the Jewish doctors. Acbody, and their immortality, for he cording to Luke, even

some of says farther, “neither can they die the Scribes remarked, “Master, thou any more.” In one word, they are hast well,” in the original, beautifulinmortal spirits. 1 Cor. xv. 50. It ly," said.” is observable here, that Jesus inci- 34-40. Parallel to Mark xii. 28-34.

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