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15 and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. He saith unto them: 16 But whom say ye that I am ? And Simon Peter answered and said: 17 Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answered

and said unto him: Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona; for flesh and

blood bath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father, which is in heaven. 18 And I say also unto thee, that thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will

founded upon sybstantially the same ness of Mark's Gospel, who is supground, the belief in the transmi- posed to have written from Peter's gration of souls, which appears to dictation or aid, according to early have been prevalent at that time. tradition, that the commendation of See notes on Mat. xi. 14, and xiv. Peter by Christ is omitted, as if 2. Those who were not ready to through modesty ? admit that Jesus was the Messiah 17. Simon Bar-jona. The latter might yet recognize him as his pre- was a Syriac word, meaning the son cursor. It is said that there was of Jona. John i. 42. As Furness a Jewish tradition that Jeremiah' remarks,“ How naturally, when a would precede the advent of the friend communicates any unexMessiah, and dig up those vessels pected sentiment or intelligence, do which it was supposed he had we express our surprise in a similar buried, and restore, in all its ancient way, uttering the whole name of splendor, the temple worship. 2 our friend, with fervent emphasis !" Maccabees, ii. 149.

--Flesh and blood. A Hebrew cir15. The question here asked cumlocution for man. Gal. i. 16.-. shows that Jesus had not expressly But my Father, &c. Human wisdorn told the Jews that he was the Mes- or authority (in allusion, perhaps, to siah, but left it to be inferred from the Scribes and Pharisees) has not his works and his words.

revealed this truth to you, but you 16. Simon Peter answered. This have arrived at it, because, in the was in harmony with his ardent providence of God, you became temperament.-Christ, the Son of niy disciple, have witnessed my the livin God. This described the divine works, and yielded to the natperson and office of Christ, and the ural influences of God's spirit upon power from on high with which he your soul. was invested. It was the joint con- 18. Thou art Peter. Or, a Peter. fession of the disciples, expressed Thou art rightly named Peter; through Peter. Christ should have which signifies, in the original Greek, the article prefixed to it as in the rock.And upon this rock I will build, original; the Christ, the Messiah. &c. The necessity of building housIt is observable that Peter's testimo- es in Judea on a rock foundation ny is, that Jesus is the Son of God, rendered this figure a graphic one to and not God himself. The phrase- the Jews. See Rev. xxi. 14, Eph. ology of the answer is slightly va- jj. 20, where the apostles and proried in the other Evangelists. The phets are called the foundation, and epithet living, as applied to God, Christ the corner-stone. Some have signifies real, true, in distinction supposed that Jesus, in saying that from idols and false gods, that were he would build liis church upon not living beings. Is it not an in- this rock, meant Peter's confession cidental evidence of the truthful- that he was the Christ; others, that

build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of beaven; and 19 whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Then 20

he ineant bimself; but the most ob- i. 22. Acts viii. 1. Rom. xvi. 5. vious reference is to Peter. He The ancient English version of was to be a foundation, as he first Tyndale renders it congregation. preached the Gospel to the Gentiles, The noble confession of Christ and took a prominent part also in by Peter is an example for all subspreading it among the Jews. As

sequent time; whilst we should the first, firmest, and most energetic beware of being tempted like him among the Twelve, he might with- to a denial of our Master, we should out invidiousness be called a main also avoid adding any human dogrock in the foundation of the mas to the beautiful simplicity of church. But that no peculiar and his faith, which comprebended the exclusive privilege was granted to great essentials. Peter above the other disciples, as 19. The keys of the kingdom of maintained by the church of Rome, heaven, i. e. the prerogatives of the is evident froin a comparison of the new dispensation. This, like all following passages : Mat. xviii. 18, figurative expressions, inust be inXX. 26, Acts xv., and Galatians ii. terpreted by the subject and pur11. Besides, if any peculiar author- pose of the discourse with which it ity had been vested

Peter more

is connected, and the use of lanthan in the other Apostles, no guiage arnongst the hearers. A key countenance would have been given was anciently used as a syinhol of to the papal supremacy, for the pre- power and wisilom. Isa. xxii. 22. rogative would have been personal Rev. iii. 7. Luke xi. 52. When the and incommunicable. The gates of Jews invested a man with the auhell. Or, of Hades, the abode or thority of doctor of the law, they world of the dead, without reference gave himn the key of the closet in to happiness or misery. See Is. the temple where the sacred books xxxviii. 10, where, in the Septuagint were kept, to intimate that they enversion, Hades is translated grave. trusted him with power to explain In the gates of ancient cities it was the Scriptures, and teach the peocustomary to hold courts and pub- ple.-- Whatsoever thou shalt bind, &c. lic assemblies and consultations. To bind, according to Jewish phraHence the gates of death mean the seology, is to forbid, and to loose is designs or power of death. The to permit. The force of Christ's church shall not die, but be immor- words is this: I authorize you to tal; a prophery which has been ful- preach my religion, by which what filled for almost twenty centuries. is forbidden and what is permitted The word church is first used in is forbidden and permitted in heaven the New Testament in this place. or by God. The word whatsoever Its original signification was an as- refers to things, to rites or laws sembly. The people of Israel are which Peter and the Apostles might called by this name. Acts vii. 38. make or repeal. A similar power It means sometimes the whole body with regard to persons is supposed of Christians, and sometimes a par- to be conferred on all the Apostles ticular society of believers. Eph. in John xx. 23. For the exercise

charged he his disciples, that they should tell po man that he was Jesus, 21 the Christ. From that time forth began Jesus to show unto his disci

ples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the

elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again 22 the third day. Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying:

The scourge,



before thee rose."

of both powers, see Acts v. 15, 20, they would indulge, as followers of xxi. 24. The same authority here the great Leader. He, therefore, given to Peter is also jipparted, Mat. from that time, more clearly dexviii. 18, to all the Twelve. The clared what he had already hinted, preëminence of Peter was not ab- Mat. xii. 40, that he was to be put solute, but arose from his distin- to death at Jerusalem; he would guished energy and ability, and thus prepare their minds beforecould not, therefore, from-its nature, hand for the coming event. Hence descend to any successor. Although his discourse, as the solemn tragedy this is the great Roman Catholic draws near, is more and more octext, when it is thus explained, it af- cupied with allusions to it. fords not the shadow of an argument for the lofty claims of that " 0, suffering friend of human kind!

How, as the fatal hour drew near, church.

Came thronging on thy holy mind 20. They should tell no man.

In The images of grief and fear! Luke ix. 21,“ be straitly” or strictly 6 Gethsemane's sad midnight scene, “ charged them.” The reasons of The faithless friends, the exulting foes, this prohibition have been intimated

The thorny crown, the insult keen, from time to tinje in the foregoing passages. Jesus would not give -Must go. Must is often used to occasion to disturbance and sedi- signify, not necessity, but that a tion, which would certainly have thing will come to pass. The prearisen, had his Apostles at once gone diction here made was fulfilled to forth to proclaim his Messiahship. the letter, as we shall see in the conThe time had not yet come, bis clusion of this history. The elministry was not ended. He there- ders, chief priests, and Scribes, or fore holds their enthusiasın in check, Jewish Sanhedrim, were chiefly inand henceforth explains to them strumental in effecting this awful more fully that he is to be not a catastrophe. triumphant but a suffering deliver- 22. Then Peter took him. Took er; to be less the Lion of Judah him aside, or took him by the hand, than the Lamb of God.-Jesus. as some think; but, as others supThis word has no place in the ori- pose, took him up, or interrupted ginal, according to Griesbach, and him, without allowing him to comother eminent critics.

plete bis declaration, Nothing can 21. Began Jesus to show unto his be more true to nature than this disciples, &c. It is natural to be- burst of a sanguine temper, after the lieve, that, as the ambition of the mind had been teeming with visdisciples had been raised to the ions of splendor and power. Peter highest pitch by the declaration that is a representative of the world, that Jesus was the Messiah, it was his shudders at sufferings and trials, intention to suppress all the expec- and sees not in them the accomtations of reward and glory which plishment of a more than heroic des

Be it far from thee, Lord; this shall not be unto thee. But he turned 23 and said unto Peter : Get thee behind me, Satan; thou art an offence unto me; for thou savorest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men. -Then said Jesus unto his disciples: If any man 24 will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; and who- 25

tiny:-Be it far from thee. Literally, Master, as well as by the earthliness God be merciful to thee, which is of his mind, for he was shocked at equivalent to God forbid, 1 Chron. the thought of one whom he so xi. 19, where the Septuagint has loved being put to death. But Jesus the same words as here.

would rend away the veil, and show 23. He turned. Mark has it, them the certainly coming reality. "turned about and looked on his dis- He would teach thein, that “the inciples.” Every page of the Evan- fant doctrine which was to go gelists has some iniinitable touches through the world, consoling the of nature. Jesus turned suddenly sorrows of the mourners, and pourround, as if started out of his usual ing balm into wounded bosoms, equanimity by this untimely famil was itself first to be nurtured with iarity of his disciple, and ready to tears, and baptized in blood.” show how aware he was of the 24. Will come after me, i.e, will be temptation, and how firm and re my disciple.--Let him deny himself. solved he was to overcome it.-Sa- Let him forget himself. Let him be tan. Here is an instance of the ready to incur the most dreadful freedom with which this word was sufferings. My disciples must be used among the Jews. It ineans of such hardihood as to look danan adversary, or evil adviser. Such ger and death, the most dreadful Peter had become to Jesus, by de- death, in the face. See note on claring that the lot that he had pre- Mat. x. 38.—Take up his dicted would not fall upon hiin. Crucifixion was à Roman mode of The thoughts which tempted Jesus punishinent, introduced among the after his baptism in the wilderness Jews, and was inconceivably agowere said to come from Satan, i. e. nizing and disgraceful. To add were evil.-An offence unto me. A new horrors to it, those who were cause of offence, a snare, a stumbling thus executed were compelled to block, namely, "by nurturing that bear the instrument of their own natural horror of his painful and ig- death to the place of punishment. nominious death, which occasional. Hence the imagery of the text, so ly harassed our Saviour.”

crushing to the hopes of his followsoon is Peter, the rock, turned to How perfectly is the truthfulan adversary!”—Thou savorest no ness of Jesus manifested in his the things, &c., or approvest or ret dealing thus frankly with his discigardest not the things which please ples ! God, but those which please men. 25. See note on Mat. x. 39. The The views of Peter savored of word life is here used with a twoworldliness and ambition, and were fold meaning, which fact explains inconsistent with the purposes of the paradox. He who desires to save Heaven ; though he may have his earthly life, at the expense of been misled by his affection for his conscience and fidelity to me, shall

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26 soever will lose his life, for my sake, shall find it. For what is a man

profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or 27 what shall a man give in exchange for his soul ? For the Son of Man

shall come in the glory of his Father, with his angels; and then he 28 shall reward every man according to his works. Verily I say unto

you, there be some standing here which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom,

lose his spiritual, heavenly life; and 27. Mark and Luke add here, he who loses his earthly life, and " Whosoever shall be ashamed of me dies rather than swerve from his and of my words, in this adulterous rectitude, shall find his true life. and sinful generation, of him also

26. Soul. This is the same word shall the Son of Man be ashamed which in the previous verse is trans- when he cometh,” &c.—Come in the lated life, and such should be its glory of his Father, &c. Most comrendering here. The sense is: What mentators refer this to the final judgwould a man be profited, if he should ment; but others, with more likeligain the whole world, its riches, hood, consider it a description of the honors, and pleasures, and lose his establishment of Christ's religion life, the essential condition on which with great power and glory in the he would possess and enjoy them world. With his angels. Is a Jewall? Or as Luke has it, ix. 25, “ Jose ish figure to denote the providence of himself.” Or what equivalent could God; as where it is said, “Their an, one fiod for his life? But the ori- gels do always behold the face of my ginal word, in a secondary sense, Father which is in heaven," i. e, they means soul, and refers to the future are under the special care of God. and spiritual existence. That the -Reward every man according to his word is susceptible of both mean- works. Render to every man, &c. ings is, according to Campbell, be- When Christianity is established, yond a question. The value of an every man shall be judged by that immortal soul is indicated indeed standard, according to his works, by the world itself, which, with all and be condemned or acquitted, as its wonders, and riches, and glories, he shall obey or disobey its divine seems to exist chiefly for the subé laws. lime purpose of educating human 28. As the spirits of the disciples spirits, and preparing them for im- might well droop by his exhibition, mortality. How senseless and mad vv. 24-26, of the sufferings to be must be be, who confounds the in- undergone in behalf of his kingdom, strument with the end, and barters he would encourage them with the away himself for the world, or for brilliant vision of his spiritual pows an insignificant portion of its fleet- er, which was so soon to be firmly ing possessions or indulgences ! enthroned amongst men, that some Know, O inan, that thou art of so who were then present would be great a price, that the world is too eye-witnesses of it. Shalt not taste poor to buy thee, though its crowns of death. A Hebraism for shall not and treasures and mines of gold die. We know that John at least, were put into the balance, Thine and probably many others of the immortal spirit outweighs the ma- bystanders, was alive about forty terial universe in the scales of God. years after, when Jerusalem was

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