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intimidated, as was also their brigade com- is that they were not totally demoralized; mander, who, as the mob grew more excited but the evidence of all the officers is that and angry, dismissed his troops lest, as he the men behaved like veterans.”* afterward defended this act, they should It is probable that the original railroad exasperate the rioters to further violence. strikers had little or no part in this attack: So the affair had simmered down to a con- they certainly had none in the arson and test between the mob and the Philadelphia pillage which followed. They had invoked soldiers. The exasperation at the blood- a spirit with which they were not in symshed of the afternoon was increased by the pathy. The controlling force now was the report, which may have been true, that some tramps, communists, criminals, and outof the killed were innocent spectators; for casts—the dregs of society, and these could the neighboring hill had been covered with work their will unrestrained. As I have people and the firing had been high. A re- said before, the mayor and police counted port that women and children were among for nothing toward the preservation of orthe killed aggravated the wrath of the der. The sheriff with some deputies went people, and when the mob reassembled at to the Twenty-eighth Street crossing with the Twenty-eighth Street crossing on the the first advance of the Philadelphia troops, tracks in the railroad yard, they were bent but effected nothing; after the firing threats on revenge, took the offensive, and laid were made to murder him, and he disapsiege to the Philadelphia troops in the peared, going first to his home and then, round-house. These were without food. apparently for greater security, to his office. Provisions were sent to them from the His ultimate safety may have been due to Union Station a mile away in express the newspapers incorrectly reporting that wagons, which, being unguarded, were in- he had been shot by the mob. The mob tercepted by the rioters. Possessed of fire- set fire to the remaining railroad buildings arms from having broken into a number of in the yard, to the laden freight cars and gun-shops, the rioters, with some attempt locomotives. Barrels of spirits taken from at military order, marched to the round- the freight cars were opened and drunk; house and poured volley after volley into another goad to the men was supplied by the windows, eliciting no response from the women, who abused the troops and pillaged Philadelphia soldiers, who were under or- with ardor; thus the work of destruction ders not to fire unless absolutely necessary and plunder of the goods in transit went on for self-protection. But after proper warn- with renewed fury. The firemen responded ing, they did fire at men attempting to use to the fire-alarm, but were not allowed to a field-piece captured from a Pittsburg bat- play upon the burning railroad property; tery, and killed perhaps two or three. Fail- after some parley, however, they got permising to overpower their enemy by assault sion to put out the flames which had spread the rioters tried fire. They applied the to private buildings. That Saturday night torch to the upper round-house and the Pittsburg witnessed a reign of terror. neighboring buildings. Breaking in the At last the lower round-house took fire heads of barrels of oil taken from the de- and the Philadelphia troops were forced to tained freight, they saturated cars of coke abandon it and retreat. Unable as they with it, ignited them, and pushed the cars were to cope with the mob, their only toward the lower round-house in the at- thought was self-preservation. At about tempt to roast out the beleaguered sol- 8 o'clock on Sunday morning, July 22, diers, who by means of the fire apparatus they marched out in good order. Their managed for a while to stay the fire. It progress was not opposed, but after passwas a terrible ordeal they were passing ing, they were fired upon from street corthrough. “Tired, hungry, worn out, sur- ners, alleyways, windows, and house-tops. rounded by a mob of infuriated men yell- Shots were fired at them from a street-car ing like demons, fire on nearly all sides of and from the sidewalk in front of a policethem, suffocated and blinded by smoke, station, where a number of policemen were with no chance to rest and little knowledge standing. The troops turned and used with of what efforts were being made for their some effect their rifles and a Gatling-gun relief, with orders not to fire on the mob

*Report of the committee of the Pennsylvania legislature


appointed to investigate the railroad riots of 1877.

which they had brought with them in their aid. Hayes responded at once, issued his retreat. Finally, they reached the United third proclamation, and ordered General States arsenal and asked for shelter and pro- Hancock to Philadelphia as the best point tection, which the commandant, fearing that from which to survey the whole field. Hanhe could not defend the place against an at- cock himself reached Philadelphia on the tack of the mob, refused. Leaving their morning of July 23, receiving that day from wounded, the Philadelphia troops, no longer the President “full authority to move any hindered by the mob, marched on, crossed troops within your division as you may the Alleghany River to Sharpsburg, and think necessary during these disturbances.” encamped near the work-house, where they Making use of this enlarged authority, he were given bread and coffee, their first food ordered out the entire available force of the since the snack of the previous afternoon military division of the Atlantic, including at the Union Station. Through the efforts the troops in the South. of Cassatt they were supplied with regular Governor Hartranft reached Pittsburg rations; and later they were ordered east on the 24th and stopped overnight. He to Blairsville (52 miles east of Pittsburg), found the city quiet, but coal was getting where, being supplied by Scott with woollen scarce and the food supply was running low, and rubber blankets, they did guard duty for hence he made up his mind that the raila number of days. During their retreat 3 or roads centring in Pittsburg must be opened 4 had been killed, or died afterward from as soon as possible, although many influtheir injuries, and 13 were wounded; 15 ential citizens, still a prey to the terror, were wounded in the affray at the Twenty- tried to persuade him to defer the attempt. eighth Street crossing. The coroner held He issued a stern proclamation, hastened inquest over 19 bodies of the rioters; it was to Philadelphia, and after consultation with thought others had been killed and disposed Generals Hancock and Schofield (the latof secretly. Many were wounded.

ter of whom was fresh from a long conferOn Sunday, the 22d, the rioting, with ence with the President and his cabinet in arson and pillage, went on, and in the af- Washington) developed his plan. Setting ternoon the Union Station and Railroad out from Philadelphia at two in the afterHotel and an elevator near by were burned. noon of July 26 with 200 men, he collected Then as the mob was satiated and too troops at various points on the way and drunk to be longer dangerous, the riot died proceeded toward Pittsburg. His progress out; it was not checked. The following was hampered from the difficulty of obtainincident illustrates the general alarm of ing crews to run the several trains which that day. The State authorities, driven carried the soldiers. In some cases the from the Union Depot Hotel, took refuge in same engineer and fireman ran the whole the Monongahela House, the leading hotel distance between Philadelphia and Pittsin Pittsburg, where they wrote their names burg (349 miles); in others crews for the in the usual manner in the hotel register; engines and trains were made up from the but these were scratched out by the hotel soldiers of the expedition. Leaving Philapeople and fictitious names put in their delphia at two on Thursday afternoon, he place. On Monday, through the action of reached Pittsburg at dawn on the Saturday, the authorities, supported by armed bands a run which is now made by the Pennsylof law-abiding citizens and some faithful vania Special in seven hours and three companies of the Pittsburg militia, order minutes. Brinton commanded the van of was restored.

the governor's force and made his re-entry Nevertheless, the business and daily oc- into Pittsburg with a caution born of his cupations on which depend the life and reg- experience of the previous week. An open ulation of an industrial community, were not car with a Gatling-gun and 30 sharp-shootresumed. Governor Hartranft, alarmed at ers was placed in front of the two locomothe seeming anarchy prevailing in his State, tives which drew the cars filled with solwas hastening home from the Far West on diers, and more sharp-shooters with a a special train, and from a telegraph station Gatling gun were in an open car at the in Wyoming, on Sunday, July 22, he or- rear end of the train. The governor, who dered out the whole militia force of Penn- had been in active service during the whole sylvania and called upon the President for of the Civil War, ending as brevet major

general, assumed command of the whole drawn; the last of the State militia departed force (about 4,000) as commander-in-chief on August 10, but some of the United States of the army of the State. In addition 600 regulars remained three weeks longer. United States regular soldiers, under orders Meanwhile, the strike had spread to a from Hancock, were sent to Pittsburg. The large number of railroads between the seacity took on the appearance of an armed board and the Missouri River, and a spircamp.

it of unrest and lawlessness had invaded On Thursday (the 26th) the Pennsyl- many of the Northern States. New York vania Railroad people began cautiously to State, however, did not suffer as acutely as repair the tracks that had been destroyed Pennsylvania; nevertheless, the contagion by the fire during the riot. The mail trains crept over the border. A threatened strike had continued to run, as the strikers and of the last days of June was realized, in the mob would not interfere with carriage fact, on July 20, when the firemen and which had at its back the authority of the brakemen on the Western division of the United States, and the running of mail Erie railway struck against the reduction trains involved a considerable amount of of wages of June, and, concentrating at passenger traffic; through passenger trains Hornellsville, stopped all trains, and tore at least had been operated, though with up the tracks to prevent the passage of considerable difficulty. For the most part troops. The Erie was in the hands of a they were sent over the western Pennsyl- State receiver who was at once furnished vania (now the Conemaugh division) which troops for his protection by the governor, left the main line at Blairsville Intersect- Lucius Robinson. But the strike spread ion; but some of the mails were transferred to other points on the Erie, and also to the by wagon round the place of riot and de- New York Central and Lake Shore railstruction of the terrible Saturday. Under roads. On July 23 the governor ordered protection of the military the work of re- the whole military force of the State under pair proceeded rapidly, but when all was arms; 16,000 men were in active service ready it was difficult to find employees will- during the troubles, and according to the ing to run the trains. The State authori- British consul-general, they seemed deties, however, had brought from Phila- termined to do their duty in upholding the delphia ten competent men, who were at law and protecting the rights and property hand for any emergency; and the knowl- of their fellow-citizens.” In most cities of edge that the State was ready to supply its New York the police were efficient, and own men to perform railroad service had while there were riotous demonstrations much influence toward inducing some of there was only one serious riot (at Buffalo, the old employees to make a break. On July 23), and that in comparison with the Sunday night, July 29, eight days after the affrays in Pennsylvania was insignificant. night of riot and terror, the first freight The remembrance of the draft riots of 1863 train was sent out on the main line under a was still fresh, so that public attention was military guard, and, although either this directed to New York City where there was one or the one following was wrecked at an army of the unemployed and where the Spring Hill by a removed switch, the move- dangerous classes abounded. Considerment was followed up with vigor on the able anxiety was felt in regard to the public Monday. A succession of freight trains meeting under socialistic and communistic were despatched, all under guard, and auspices, called for Wednesday evening, there ensued a rush of the striking train- July 25, in Tompkins Square. Considermen to secure their old places. The Pitts- ing the matter carefully, the mayor and burg, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad police authorities decided to permit the had already been opened, and the Alle- meeting, but to suppress promptly and ghany Valley resumed operations on this sternly the least attempt at disturbance. same Monday. The strike at Pittsburg was The police were out in force and were kept over. The men on the Pennsylvania Rail- well in hand, and three regiments of militia road returned to work at the reduced wages under arms were subject to the call of the which had gone into effect on the first of mayor. One of these was the Seventh, June. The troops began leaving Pittsburg who, from their armory, 500 yards away, on July 31, and they were gradually with- could reach Tompkins Square in ten minutes ready for action. It is said that some tinued presence in the city insured tranof the communists in taking stock of the quillity. Six companies were there on the measures to preserve order got a look into 26th and later 13 more companies arrived, this armory, and seeing the best young General Sheridan himself reaching Chicago citizens of New York lying on their arms on the 29th. with the determined look of men who are The country may be said to have been in out on grave duty, felt their courage for the a tumult from July 16 to 31, but with one attempt to overturn society ooze away. exception the rioting was over before the Inflammatory speeches made in English last day of July and the strike was settled. and German were probably taken seri- In the main the strikers failed to secure ously by the communists and socialists, but the restoration of the pay which they had did not goad them to riotous action, and demanded. indeed the majority of the 10,000 or 12,000 It is probable that the ratio of unemwho had gathered together was an ordinary ployed to the total population has never good-natured crowd actuated by curiosity been larger in this country than during rather than bent on mischief. “The meet- 1877, and the strikes and riots of that year ing," wrote the British consul-general, constituted the most serious labor disturb"was a complete fiasco"; and this resultance that has ever occurred in the United had a pacifying influence throughout New States. For a while freight traffic on the York State and all over the disturbed part most important railroads of the country of the country.

was entirely suspended, and the mail and By July 28 the riotous demonstrations passenger trains were run only on sufferhad ceased, the trouble in the State of New ance of the strikers. Business was paraYork was over, and nearly all of the State lyzed. The railroad managers had no idea militia were sent home. The trainmen re- that they were prodding a slumbering giant sumed work on the Erie and New York when their edict of a ten-per-cent reduction Central at the reduced wages.

went forth. The industrious workmen who New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, began an honest strike against what they Illinois, Michigan, Kentucky, and Texas deemed an unfair reduction and unjust were disturbed by strikes and affected by exactions little imagined that they would the general unrest and lawlessness. One oc- soon be allied with the dregs of society. currence claims our attention. The strike Their experience recalls this statement of on the railroads in Chicago furnished an Niebuhr's: “A man of great distinction occasion for the rising of a mob of the who had lived through all the terrors of dangerous classes, who were numerous in the French Revolution, but had kept his this city owing to the large and conglom- hands clean, once said to me, “You do not erate foreign population. The mayor was know what a recollection it is to have lived determined and the police efficient, and the during a revolution: one begins the attack story of July 24 and 25 is that of many con- with the best, and in the end one finds oneflicts between the police and the mob, the self among knaves.' ” Writers however, police maintaining the upper hand. There who have based their accounts on newswere State troops available and also six paper sources have pushed historical parcompanies of United States regulars, who, allels too far when they have compared the on their way East, had been stopped by the riots of 1877 with the terrible days of the Secretary of War and for whom the proper first French Revolution and of the Paris requisition had been made by the governor. Commune of 1871. In truth a thorough The mayor was loath to call upon the study will show much more conspicuous troops, but on July 26 the situation had diversities than resemblances between the become so grave that he authorized their American and the French uprisings. use. On this day a desperate conflict took Heretofore, except for the suppression of place at the Sixteenth Street viaduct be- the New York City draft riots during the tween the mob and the police, in which 1o Civil War, and for the enforcement of the rioters were killed and 45 wounded. Nine- governmental policy of reconstruction in teen police were injured. The appearance the Southern States, United States soldiers of the United States regulars on the scene had been rarely and sparingly used in doput an end to the rioting, and their con- mestic troubles. In July, 1877, the governors of West Virginia, Maryland, Penn- end of the century the gulf between labor sylvania, and Illinois called upon the Presi- and capital was constantly widening; the dent for assistance, which, as we have seen, difficulty of either workman or employer was promptly sent. In Missouri and In- putting himself in the other's place indiana as well as in Illinois the regulars were creased. This tendency was much accelemployed on the demand of the United erated by the autocratic reduction in wages States marshals, acting under the authority of 1877 and by the strikes and riots which of the United States courts through the re- ensued. It is true that victory rested with ceivers whom they had appointed. Where the railroad companies, but it was a Pyrrhic the regular soldiers appeared order was victory. at once restored without bloodshed. TheIn his annual message of December, President acted with judgment and deci- *1877, President Hayes said that his Southsion, and it was due to him that order was ern policy had been “subjected to severe ultimately restored. But the number of and varied criticism.” He might have outcasts and the prevalence of the mob drawn a strong argument in its favor from spirit disclosed by the events of July made the events of July. The old Confederate thoughtful men shudder as they reckoned States were stripped bare of United States what might have happened had not the troops, yet they, with the exception of disputed presidency of a few months ear- Texas, vied in peace and order with New lier been peacefully settled. The number England, these two sections contrasting ready to enlist under any banner that strangely in their tranquillity with the rest promised a general overturn and a chance of the country. Moreover, it was said that for plunder would have proved a danger- General Schofield was assured that 100,000 ous factor had Republicans and Democrats men in the South were ready to come at the come to blows.

call of the President, to protect the governFrom the close of the Civil War to the ment or any State from insurrection.


By A. Carter Goodloe


SERRIS hung over the steam- in mid-ocean before they struck?” he de

er's rail chewing gloomily at manded indignantly of the German Lloyd the end of his unlighted cigar pier. Receiving no reply, he tore up the and crumpling a telegram offending telegram and scattered it to the between his fingers. His winds of New York bay.

usually blithe countenance The head deck steward came up and wore an injured expression, and even the touched him on the shoulder. “Shall I sight of six beribboned members of a Ho- show you where I've placed your two chairs, boken singverein, accompanied by a brass sir?” he asked anxiously. “I got the two band and an enormous floral horseshoe in- best places, sir, on the windward side bescribed" Auf Wiedersehen,” who were bear- hind— . ing down upon a rotund Teuton beaming Ferris turned a resigned look upon him. upon them from the end of the gang-plank, “Never mind," he said languidly, “I don't failed to arouse a sympathetic smile. No care a hang where they are and I only want one was there to bid him good-by, he re- one." llected dejectedly, and instead of his travel- The deck steward gazed sorrowfully at ling companion, Arnold, there was only the Ferris. This sudden diminution of intertelegram.

est was most discouraging from a financial “Confound it! Why couldn't Arnold's point of view. Had he been of a different blooming miners have waited until we were class he would probably have made philo

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