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in his party, he dictated the policy of the between the President and the Senate, Democratic Senate and eventually that of which came to a head from Wilson's readCongress. “I can afford to oppose this ing in the House a letter from Cleveland, bill and beat the President,” he said to in which he denounced the Senate bill as a Andrew Carnegie, “but I cannot afford to disregard of Democratic pledges and an oppose and be beaten by him.” The open abandonment of principles to the extent of confidence of Carnegie and other Repub- "party perfidy and party dishonor." The lican manufacturers in Gorman and Brice, letter was not tactful but honest; bad polought to have aroused the suspicion and itics, yet, if we take its measure not at the partisanship of the Democrats and Popu- moment but in the long run, good stateslists who were devoted to tariff reform, and manship. It gave rise to an angry disincited them to resent dictation by two of cussion in the Senate in which Gorman their number and to demand that their had the sympathy of most of his brother majority of seven be employed to register Democratic Senators and it seems to have the will of their party as presented in their strengthened his leadership. Had Cleveplatform, as declared at the polls, personi- land understood Congress and possessed fied in their President, and as formulated by the art of facile negotiation that belonged the House. That this was not the result to his successor, McKinley, he could unwas due to circumstances well illustrated doubtedly have brought the contest between by the remark of the London fish dealer: himself and Gorman to a drawn battle and “I am in favor of free trade in everything so secured a better bill. He might, it is but herring.” The Senators from Mary- true, have been more flexible and serene, land, West Virginia, and Alabama were yet his bold grapple with the opponents in against any bill placing coal and iron ore his own party is an inspiration now to those on the free list, and they were upheld by who wish to apply sound economic doctrine well-known Democratic magnates at the to the conduct of our national affairs. North who were largely interested in the The Committee of Conference wrangled production of these minerals. The Sena- for eleven days but failed to come to an tors from Louisiana insisted that her sugar agreement. A second conference was had. planters should not be sacrificed, and Gorman stood firm on the ground that it Senator Murphy of New York, who lived must be the Senate bill or nothing, and in at Troy, demanded that the industry of his the end compelled the House to surrender. town be protected, and obtained a duty on This chapter of tariff reform ended ignobly. linen collars and cuffs almost as high as The bill that was passed was like the old that in the McKinley bill (McKinley bill Republican article, differing only in degree, thirty cents per dozen and forty per cent except that wool and lumber were placed ad valorem; Wilson bill thirty-five per on the free list. Truly did Cleveland write cent ad valorem; Senate bill thirty cents in a public letter, "the livery of Democratic per dozen and thirty per cent ad valorem.) tariff reform has been stolen and worn in Gorman worked on these different local the service of Republican protection.” Gorinterests astutely and with marked success. man was the father of the law posing as the

Thus far he framed his bill according to conservative protector of American indusRepublican precedents, but there was worse tries against what was regarded as the revbehind. The words of the President and olutionary designs of the President and of Wilson, and a mass of facts supporting the House. Yet if the history and traditheir guarded utterances, indicate that the tions of the party and the platform of 1892, sugar schedule, which was rendered unduly on which the Democrats came into possesfavorable to the Sugar Trust, was secured sion of the government, are the test, the faithby that corporation's method of indirectful Democrat is Cleveland, not Gorman. bribery and corruption.

The President pursued a dignified course. The Senate made six hundred and thirty- He could not sign a bill which he had defour amendments to the House bill and nounced. If he vetoed it, the McKinley then passed it by 39 to 34 (July 3, 1894). bill, which he deemed the worse of the two, It went as usual to a conference and the remained on the statute book. He theredecided disagreement between the House fore allowed it to become a law without his and the Senate was aggravated by a quarrel signature (August 27, 1894).

· THE POINT OF VIEW

OUBTLESS, as was suggested in the the validity of the quest. Search under all the

August magazine, many phases of our grotesque manifestations of our passion for

pursuit of culture are folly, and it is true "going to all," and going to see all, and you that in countless instances our search for beauty cannot fail to feel the pathos of it, the blind, is confounded with the pleasures of the chase. dumb, wistful sense that there is something in Pages have been written about the skip-hop- the world besides machinery, and modern imand-jump of our progress through past cen- provements, and the thin and tinkling phases turies and across continents, and there is al- of our civilization. Subtract the vanity that ways more to tell. I once saw a tourist party leads many, the joy of being seen; eliminate the of our fellow countrymen hurried through the restlessness, the American desire for perpetual Louvre, with an impatient cry on the part of motion; discount the passion for doing as the

the conductor: "Now, ladies, and others do, one of the most potent passions of The Folly of

gentlemen, you haven't time to stop our lives--disregard all this, and you have at Staying at Home.

** to look at anything! Just walk on the heart of this folk-wandering, something as fast as you can! This gallery is an eighth of deeper, a sense of dissatisfaction with that a mile long!” It was only last summer that a which we have achieved, a profound striving of motor-car was driven rapidly to the portal of the instinct for perfection. Wells Cathedral; the American at the wheelH ow else, stranded between sea and sea, with jumped out, crying: “Now you do the inside, no older and subtler civilization near to send and we'll do the outside, and it won't take us us a deeper challenge, are we to acquire a sense more than fifteen minutes!” I am willing to of values? That we have worn out an intoladmit, lest I seem to fail to understand that erable deal of good shoe leather without fully point of view with which I thoroughly disagree, acquiring it, I am ready to admit. I can still that even funnier than our haste is the be- recall a vigorous western lady who loudly dewildering thoroughness of our search. claimed upon the deck of a returning steamer, “Through bush, through briar," we go at full that she had seen in her three months' journey, tilt, some queer survival of the Puritan con- "all the big galleries in Europe," as she science leading us on in Puck fashion, and phrased it, Berlin, Dresden, Paris, London, and with a Puck-like plan, to treat with the same she had not seen any pictures that could for a superficial conscientiousness art and architec- moment compare with those at the art exture, history, music, all visible and invisible hibition at Boulder, Colorado, the year before. phases of human achievement. A friend of Doubtless she was right, and for her the trail mine tells of an American lady who once is long before she will find out wherein the rushed up to her in the Vatican, asking breath- difference consists, yet I thought that, in the lessly: "Can you tell me—have I seen the Pan- loudness and the positiveness of her assertion theon?" The response: “Madam, you must lay some dim misgiving of real beauty, and a know that better than I," brought a second fear that all was not as she said in the world of swift question: "Has it a hole in it?” The ad- art. We are still young, and have much to mission that it has a hole in it elicited a quick learn; it is fitting that we should trudge dilisigh of gratitude. Then, said the tourist, with gently to that dame-school where Europe sits the relieved air of one who has one dash the and patiently teaches us the alphabet of the less to make,—then she had seen it. Perhaps arts. It is at the shrines of dead genius, before the future will reveal to our inventive minds, a the great pictures and the great cathedrals that method of absorbing the value of the old mas- we learn the failure of our own success, and in ters by flying over them in aeroplanes, out such sense of failure lies our only hope. doing the motor-car in the matter of “making As for the assertion that it is folly to search time" in the quest of the ideal, yet surely no out the places associated with the great, there phase of absurdity should shatter our faith in are innumerable ways in which the sight of the Vol. L.–47

505

eyes does mean “vision," and, standing where joke. Was it fancy, or did the upper windows
you can see the actual stream and meadow that wink slightly, while a suggestion of a smile
the poet saw, you enter in wholly new fashion rippled over the façade? Such an experienced
into his work. Meanings which escape you on little house it is, with such a look of pluck and
the written page are made delicately clear by endurance, I really half expected it to speak,
grass and tree and flower. For reasons that saying something brave and kind and funny.
can never be fully explained, a glimpse of the Never before had I realized the spiritual pos-
ancient church and of the slow river at Strat- sibilities of brick and mortar; never since have
ford, the walk across the fields to Ann Hath- I doubted that houses are inhabited by the
away's cottage bring deeper knowledge than souls of those who have lived visibly there.
can be gained from studying the German com- “Dull would he be of soul who could pass
mentators. The stile, the foot-path way, have by" a sight so touching as Grasmere without
not vanished; lark and swallow help you une comprehending more fully the way in which
derstand, as do pleasant faces that make you the poet-spirit reached out and found spirit
feel that you are looking with Shakespeare's working through the beauty of nature. Who
eyes at the moment when he first saw Bottom would stay at home, idly dreaming, when he
or Autolycus. At every step you draw nearer might go to see, if but once, those pale green
the poet of Hamlet's deepest questioning, the slopes that touch the clouds, the moss-grown
young poet of Midsummer Night's Dream, the stone fences crumbling back into the hills
older poet of the Winter's Tale, lover of prim- among the grazing sheep, the shining fern, and
roses, violets, and daffodils. It needs neither know the enchantment of that loveliest valley,
mouse nor daisy to make the fields about Ayr forever set to the music of swift rippling streams
betray Burns, and the passion and the pain of and bird songs, as well as to the "still, sad
his love songs find out undiscovered depths music of humanity”?
within you as you watch the country lovers
strolling arm in arm through the summer dusk.
Still

JOT arrogance, but humility may lead
"Come rigs, and barley rigs,

you to wish to walk in the very footAn' corn rigs are bonnie";

steps of the great, lift your eyes to their

hills, touch reverently the trunks of the trees
“Green grow the rashes, O;
Green grow the rashes."

under which they have rested. Crossing the

threshold of the birthplace of genius may have What unexpected, humorous revelations deep symbolic value, giving hint or promise of your wayward steps in a foreign town may crossing the threshold of the soul. There are bring! London never wears a greater charm places in which one glance will do for you what than when it is lending you Lamb's "sweet no amount of imagination musing over lives security of streets!” “O her lamps of a night! and letters will do. Go to Haworth, her rich goldsmiths, print-shops, toy-shops, clinging with its gray-black stones to

of the Great. mercers, hardware men, pastry cooks, St. the green Yorkshire hill-side ' and Paul's Church-yard, the Strand, Exeter Change, climb the steep and narrow street past the Charing Cross. These are thy gods, O Black Bull, whose name spells deeper tragedy London!” The British profiles on a single than any biographer has yet recorded of British 'bus have shown me in the flesh Mr. Branwell Brontë. Enter the church-yard, Micawber, Uriah Heep, Sairey Gamp, and Mr. where the shadows of the tall trees fall upon Carker. Did glass and stone ever take on such the flat tombstones. Where else, except upon human resemblance as Thackeray's house in the desolate, sunlit moor, will you meet the Young Street, London? It is a visible inter- soul of Emily Brontë? pretation of him. Its very shape and contour; those two wise upper windows, so like the “I'll walk where my own nature would be leading: kindly eyes that must often have looked out of

It vexes me to choose another guide:

Where the gray flocks in ferny glens are feeding. them; the graciousness of the front door; the Where the wild wind blows on the mountain side." hospitality of the whole face, bidding one welcome to the cosy nooks, mental or others, to be A step, and lo! you understand as you had found within, made it, for the moment, identical not dreamed of doing. The very air is interwith its vanished occupant. I never before saw a preter, and out among the heath and harebells house look as if enjoying at length some kindly of which she loved to write, the soft wind

and

The Footsteps

breathing through the grass, the bees humming derer in another land, may the softer slopes dreamily about, larks singing high in the blue about Assisi, the nibbling sheep, the barefooted sky, you discover something of the depth and poor, reveal St. Francis, and a deeper faith. the breadth of that nature. Surely it is well Happy are we if hands and feet can serve us to be privileged to see the horizon line which in this quest, through which we are drawn by taught Emily Brontë:

vague misgiving and sense of lack to the dim

and hoary corners of antiquity. When one “There is not room for death, Nor atom that his might could render void !" may go to listen to the "beauty born of mur

muring sound," why should one stay stupidly Homeliest, most uncompromising of birth- at home and try to make it up? Why think places, open and bare to the sky, in level coun- that one can invent out of one's inner conscioustry where there is no obvious leafy picturesque- ness that to whose making a nation's faith, the ness, is Thomas Carlyle's Ecclefechan. In endeavor of a race, has gone? Can you sit on this hard little foreign-looking village, with your own door step and erect the Taj Mahal ? house walls of stone or of plaster close to the Or raise the cunning walls of St. Sophia ? street, no grace of tree or flower between them Does not the charge of arrogance and conceit and the cobble-stone pavement, "encircled by better fit this case than the other? If eye and the mystery of existence; under the deep ear and finger-tip may minister to the soul; if heavenly firmament; waited on by the four certain humble sense impressions may help the golden seasons, did the child sit and learn." vision of that “inward eye which is the bliss" Where can you find another spot which the of the true disciple of beauty, were it not look of things betrays more fully the beginning strange to ignore them? What is art but the of a life-struggle—soul against the material creation for eye and ear of inner thought and world? Where else can you learn so well Car- feeling, the ministrant whereby the senses may lyle's message of the unreality of visible things, become handmaidens of the spirit? Even so the wonder of the unseen? The little trudging may the visible and tangible loveliness of legs adown the village street to-day suggest the places betray the “very sky and sea line" of beginning of his life-long pilgrimage, and, a poet's nature; "nor soul helps sense,” in this far across the level green, blue Skiddaw to the way, more than "sense helps soul." south lends the look of ethereal distance that is nearest heaven.

Sometimes the mere sight of a place betrays A BRITISH friend sent me several months more than an individual, reveals a nation, A ago the report, in the London Times, of faith, forgotten, or half known, or potent still. Lord Rosebery's speech in Edinburgh The Druid stones at Carmac, set in soft grass, against the proposed abolition of the House of or at Salisbury upon the downs, start your Lords. It is germane to the criticism which I thoughts wandering farther than you can fol- am about to make that no American reader can low them. If modern Greece is disillusioning, have knowledge of such an address from his and it may be to people who lack imagination own compatriotic newspapers. He must know it to see in dust and stone—and think, what stone, from the page-long report in the London Times, Pentelic marble!-the glory of past days, who or he will not know it at all. And could stand at ancient Delphi and fail to com- such a speech is so very well worth

As to

"Survivals" prehend the worship of Apollo, the sun-god? knowing. The chiefest emotion it As, in earliest morning, the light through the excited in my own mind was one of patriotic cleft steals from peak to gray peak, touches the envy. “Is there any public man in the United mountain side, and flows, a flood of glory States," I said to myself, “who could have through the deep gorge to the wide olive plain made that speech to save his life?” The and Itea, far by the sea, visibly to his temple scholarship, the candor, the wit, the courtesy, walks the god. The shrine clings to the steep almost above all what Boswell, speaking of mountain side, where wonderful Delphi still Topham Beauclerk's way of telling a story, stands on the lower slopes of Mount Parnassus, calls “a lively elegant manner, and that air of whose peak is hidden, though perhaps the 'the world' which has I know not what impresscircling eagles about the grim heights see; and ive effect, as if there were something more than standing here one wonders how any people is expressed, or than perhaps we can perfectly could have failed to worship the splendor thus understand." These are the qualities of Britrevealed each day at dawn. Even so, to a wan- ish parliamentary eloquence, no doubt, and

have been, and will apparently continue to be, readers of the English language. While the beyond the reach even of the athletes of Amer- Reform Bill of 1832 was under discussion, its ican parliamentary eloquence. I comforted opponents were predicting that its passage myself, in reading a speech otherwise so wound would be the end of statesmanship. Still more ing to my patriotic self-love, with thinking that doleful were the vaticinations of the Cassandras the American public speakers who could have of 1866, upon the what, to American readers, come nearest to it-I need not name them- seemed very moderate extension then proposed would have been the first to allow that they to the very moderate reform of 1832. Upon could not have equalled it. Very likely they ears not even yet stricken with surdity fell the would have attributed their admitted inferiority eloquent deprecations of Robert Lowe: "Deto the inferiority of their audiences, whether in mocracy you can have at any time. Night and the Senate or on the "hustings," to the audi- day the gate stands open which leads to that ences of the noble lord, whether his immediate bare and arid plain where every ant-hill is a auditory in the hall at Edinburgh, or the mountain, and every thistle is a forest tree." greater secondary audience in the apprehen- And yet, forty-five years later, comes evidence sion of which every British orator goes in fear, that, to the enlarged British constituencies, the of the readers of the London Times.

ant-hill and the mountain, the thistle and the But, of course, this deprecation, so far from forest tree, are very much where they were. attenuating the criticism, at once sharpens and It is true, there is some evidence to the contrary. enlarges it. Even if an American orator Mr. Asquith himself must have grinned, though could make as “great" a speech, the depreca- perhaps ruefully if not grudgingly, at the epition would import he could not get an equal gram which appeared in a London paper most hearing. Manifestly, this impeachment of the Britannically without title or explicit comment: auditory, immediate or secondary, is a more

I hold the office held by Pitt; serious national impeachment than would be

Where Peel and Gladstone sat, I sit; the mere confession that we had not, at pres

You pay me fifteen pounds a day; ent, any orators of Lord Rosebery's rank; be

And yet I say the things I say. cause it is a confession that we cannot furnish But, upon the whole, one would be rash to asan equally intelligent audience. Doubtless sert that the public life of England reflects less there is no newspaper in the United States accurately the national movement than the pubwhich would report an American speech as lic life of America, which is theoretically so much important as that of Lord Rosebery at Edin- more "advanced.” From the point of view of burgh, with a fulness equal to that of the a merely theoretical political evolution, Lord London Times. We cannot afford the space, Rosebery, in his capacity of hereditary legislator, would be the explanation. But when you con- is an anomalyanda “survival," and the average sider the ephemera and the trivialities to which American senator, the average American M.C., the newspapers of wide circulation would post- whatever else he may be, is at least the accurate pone the full presentation of a “great argu- representative of "the Spirit of the Age.” This ment," involving large present and future theoretical conclusion will hardly survive the issues of national destiny, the explanation is shock of the facts. For, almost at the same an aggravation. Meanwhile, it is consolatory moment when Lord Rosebery was approving to the believer in democracy to reflect, the dole- himself at Edinburgh the most enlightened of the ful vaticinations of the British Conservative moderns, there were emerging, into such light Cassandras have been sufficiently refuted by as is afforded by the comparatively illegible rethe fact that such a speech as this should have ports of the debates in Congress, strange pleiobeen fully reported in a "leading organ” in saurs and pterodactyls, survivals of an antedi1911, and disseminated throughout the Eng- luvian world, heaved up out of due time from lish-reading world to fulfil its proper mission “the dead and most untouched deep water with intelligent, candid and conscientious of the sea.”

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