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could never say “No” to Wagner (nor to a the genius and noble friendship of Liszt. pretty woman). He understood and for- It atoned for a wilderness of previous neggave the Mime nature in Wagner for the lect and ingratitude. sake of his Siegfried side. There was no With Wagner's death in 1883 his hold on Mime in Liszt, nothing small nor hateful, things began to weaken. He taught, he although he could at times play the benev- travelled, he never failed to pay the prinolent, ironic Mephisto. And in his art he cess an annual visit at Rome. She had immirrored this quality to perfection—the mured herself behind curtained windows, Mephistopheles of his Faust symphony. and to the light of waxen tapers led the life
Intrigues pursued him in his capacity of a mystic, also smoked the blackest of as court musical director. The Princess cigars. She became a theologian in pettiMaria Pavlowna died June, 1859; the fol- coats and wrote numerous and inutile lowing October Princess Marie, daughter of books about pin-points in matters ecclePrincess Sayn-Wittgenstein, married the siastical. No doubt she still loved Liszt, Prince Hohenlohe, and Liszt, after an for she set a spy on him at Weimar and opera by Peter Cornelius was hissed re- thus kept herself informed as to how much signed his post. He remembered Goethe cognac he consumed daily, how many and his resignation-caused by a trained pretty girls had asked for a lock of his silvery dog at the same theatre. But he didn't hair, also the name of the latest aspirant leave Weimar until August 17,1861, joining to his affections. the Princess at Rome. The scandal of the What a brilliant coterie of budding arattempted marriage there with the princess tists surrounded him. D’Albert, Friedagain riveted the eyes of the world upon heim, Joseffy, Rosenthal, Reisenauer, Liszt. His very warts became notorious. Grieg, Edward MacDowell, Stavenhagen, Some say that Cardinal Antonelli, instigated Sofie Menter, Toni Raab, Siloti, Pachby Polish relatives of the princess, upset the mann, Saint-Saëns, Rubinstein—the latter affair when the pair were literally on the not as pupil—and other distinguished eve of approaching the altar; some believe names in the annals of piano playing. that the wily Liszt had set in motion the Liszt's health broke down, yet he persisted machinery; but the truth is that, at the ad- in visiting London during the summer of vice of the cardinal Prince Hohenlohe, his 1886, where he was received like a demiclosest friend, the marriage scheme was god by Queen Victoria, and the musical dropped. When the husband of the prin- world; he had been earlier in Paris, where cess died there was no further talk of mat a mass of his was sung with success. His rimony. Instead, Liszt took minor orders, money affairs were in a tangle; once in reconcentrated his attention on church music, ceipt of an income that enabled him to throw and henceforth spent his year between money away to any whining humbug, he Rome, Weimar, and Budapest. To Wei- complained at the last that he had no home mar he had returned (1869) at the cordial of his own, no income-he had not been invitation of the archduke, who allotted to too shrewd in his dealings with music pubhis use a little house in the park, the Hof- lishers—and little ready cash for travelgärtnerei. There every summer he received ling expenses. The princess needed her pupils from all parts of the world, gratui- own rents, and Liszt was hardly a chartously advising them, helping them from his ity pensioner. During the Altenburg years, now impoverished purse, and, incidentally, the Glanzzeit at Weimar, her income had being admired by a new generation of musi- sufficed for both, as Liszt was earning no cal enthusiasts, particularly those of the money from concert tours. But at the feminine gender. There were lots of end despite his devoted disciples, he was scandals, and the worthy burghers of the the very picture of a deserted, desolate old town shook their heads at the goings-on of hero. And he had given away fortunes, the Lisztianer. The old man fell under and played fortunes at benefit concerts many influences, some of them sinister. into the coffers of cities overtaken by fire He seldom saw Richard or Cosima Wag- or flood or in need of musical monuments ner, though he had attended the opening of to Beethoven or Hummel. Surely, this is Bayreuth in 1876. On that occasion Wag- the seamy side of success. “Wer aber wird ner publicly paid a magnificent tribute to nun Liszt helfen?” This half-humorous, half-pathetic cry of his had its tragic sig- ance of “Tristan and Isolde," through which nificance.
he slept from absolute exhaustion; though Liszt last touched the key-board July he did not fail to acknowledge in company 19th, 1886, at Colpach, Luxemburg, in the with Cosima Wagner the applause at the castle of Munkaczy, the Hungarian painter. close. He went at once to bed never to leave Feeble as he must have been, there was a it alive. He died of lung trouble on the supernatural aureole about his music that night of July 31st or the early hour of caused his hearers to weep. (Fancy the August 1, 1886, and his last word is said piano-forte inciting to tears!). He played to have been “Tristan.” He was buried Iis favorite Liebestraum, the Chant Polo- in haste—that he might not interfere with nais from the “Glanes de Woronice" (the the current Wagner festival-and, no doubt, name of the Polish estate of the Princess was mourned at leisure. His princess surSayn-Wittgenstein), and the sixteenth of vived him a year; this sounds more romanhis Soirées de Vienne. He went on to Bay- tic than it is. A new terror was added reuth, in company with a persistent young to death by his ugly tomb, designed by his Parisian lady—the paramount passion not grandson, Siegfried Wagner; also a comquite extinguished -attended a perform- poser, as well as an amateur architect.
By Edith M. Thomas
In Childhood's world, of a rainy day,
When nothing, outside, the child could do,
Two pieces of mirror, and I between
There was the Self that smiled as I smiled;
And last, oh, last, was an Elfin Child!
Each face in the mirror (mirrored, too)
Gazed at its image—and all at me;
And I shut my eyes, that I might not see!
Those broken shards they were cast away,
Dropped, with so many a childish game.
With no glass at all, it is just the same;
For Thought, now, serves me mirror-wise;
And, whenever within I list to gaze,
Is the wonted Self, of my current days!
But, back of that wonted Self of mine
(Just as it happened so long ago),
Is the Mocking One I do not know.
By James Ford Rhodes
as a requisite for admission into certain
classes of the public service, made a classPURPOSE writing two ar- ification of a number of offices mandatory, ticles on Cleveland, and in and empowered the President to continue my treatment of his two ad- the classification, that is, to extend the opministrations I shall not con- eration of the law to additional places in the fine myself to the chrono- civil service. It forbade political assess
logical order, but shall de- ments on office-holders, and established velop each principal topic by itself. Entire- a non-partisan Civil Service Commission, ly logical as this method would seem in whose duty was to make rules for carrying the consideration of any other President, it the act into effect and in general to look needs perhaps a word of apology in the case to its enforcement. President Arthur apof Cleveland, whose two terms, unlike those pointed Eaton as head of the commission of any other re-elected President, were not and correctly enforced the law, so that continuous. The first Democrat to occupy when Cleveland came to the White House the White House since 1861, he served his there were 15,573 persons in the classified first term from 1885 to 1889. In 1888 he service. was defeated by Harrison, but, four years It now seems curious that the question later, he in turn was the victor and served was ever raised whether or not Cleveland his second term from 1893 to 1897. In was advancing the cause of civil service his “Presidential Problems,” published reform, but a consideration of his attitude seven years after he had laid down the under two aspects may enable us to underresponsibilities of office, he considered, as stand the varying opinion before it settled presumably his most important work, four down to a final judgment. Did he enforce subjects: his contest in 1886 with the Re- steadfastly the Pendleton law? Was he publican Senate over the suspensions of actuated by the spirit of the reform in dealofficials; his action during the Chicago ing out the offices beyond the classified serstrike of 1894; his preservation of the gold vice? To the first question there is only standard, and his conduct of the Venez- one answer. President Cleveland gave a uelan boundary controversy. These last faithful and honest enforcement of the law, three fall within his second administration, But the other matter demands some diswhich is, undoubtedly, the more important cussion. of the two. For my part, though of his As head of the municipal government of mind in respect to three of these subjects, I Buffalo, Cleveland had been known as the regard two others as surpassing in impor- “veto mayor''; as governor of New York, tance his quarrel with the Senate about the he had shown himself, by precept and exoffices, viz., his action for the reform of ample, a good civil service reformer. The the civil service and for the reduction of Mugwumps, former Republicans who had the tariff.
bolted the nomination of Blaine and who To begin, then, with civil service re- had proved themselves an important factor form: No account of this momentous strug- in his first election, were warm advocates gle is adequate without reference to what of the reform and entertained high hopes Ostrogorski calls its Magna Charta, the act of the new President. The different civil of January 16, 1883. This was drawn up service reform associations throughout the by Dorman B. Eaton, an early and intelli- country and the National Civil Service Regent servant of the cause, and introduced form League included in their membership into Congress by Senator George H. Pen- many Mugwumps, from whose influence dleton, who zealously urged its enactment. largely their deliberations derived a highIt required open competitive examinations ly critical tone. These bodies not only watched closely the enforcement of the augural address he repeated, in more genPendleton act but made their lofty ideal eral terms, this outline of his administrative of the duty of a reform President to apply policy. George William Curtis, the presirigorously to his disposition of offices that dent of the National League, at their andid not fall under the operation of this nual meeting (August, 1885) made a plea law. When Cleveland was inaugurated for the repeal of the four-year tenure law, there were about five thousand presidential in which he undoubtedly represented an offices, whose incumbents were appointed opinion largely held among reformers; and by the President and confirmed by the while this law may at the present time be Senate, and there were also, in round num- proving obstructive of the effort to exbers, forty-nine thousand fourth-class post- tend the merit system to the class of offices offices to which appointments were made that it covers, yet, in the change of party by the Postmaster-General, who, of course, control from Republican to Democratic in is under the authority of the President. 1885, it was a help to Cleveland in his effort While some of the Democratic leaders had for good administration. At that time, warmly advocated civil service reform, the according to both theory and practice of rank and file of the party believed that Democrat, Whig, and Republican since "to the victors belong the spoils" was good Andrew Jackson, practically every office, Democratic doctrine, and, after the in- except the 15,573 in the classified service, auguration ceremonies were over, they ex- belonged, by the decision of the people in pected the turning out of Republicans to the preceding November, to the Demobegin and the faithful and long-suffering, 'cratic party. Cleveland's construction of who had waited twenty-four years for their the four-year tenure law gave him time to share of the good things of the government, inquire, to investigate, and to reflect before to be rewarded. Though aware that Cleve- he made a large number of new appointland was a so-called civil service reformer, ments, and this opportunity for leisurely they failed to realize either the meaning of proceeding was of immense advantage, as the doctrine or the sincerity of its champion; is evident when we consider Lincoln's, for, as one of their Senators (Eustis) ex- Pierce's, and Taylor's trials on their accespressed it, they felt that the civil service re- sion to office. form for which they had voted at the presi- When the Democratic politicians and dential election meant the turning out of party workers, who had waited twenty-four office of Republicans and putting honest years for an inning, came to understand Democrats in their places.
the construction which Cleveland put upon Before his inauguration, however, Cleve- his own words, they were grievously disland had gone on record. In his Christmas appointed, and disappointment was soon Day (1884) reply to a letter of the National followed by rage. Within two months from Civil Service Reform League, which he had his inauguration he had lost popularity invited, he said that he should enforce the and standing in his party. The President, Pendleton law "in good faith and without said the chairman of the Democratic Naevasion,” and he outlined his proposed tional Committee, has not, so far as I know, course with regard to offices which, though a friend among Democrats except perhaps not within the letter of the law, were at the some one whom he has appointed to office. same time unrelated to the political policy Nor were men of the Democratic rank and of an administration. Reference was here file who had no desire for place, especially made to district attorneys, collectors and pleased. They would have liked him to surveyors of customs, and other specified put in force “the good old Democratic doccivil officers who, by an act passed in 1820, trine" of Andrew Jackson; but now, havhad a four years' tenure of office; a later ing exuberantly rejoiced over their victory statute (1836) placed under this rule the in November, they were puzzled that no effirst-, second-, and third-class postmasters of fort was made to gather its fruits. Senator the present classification. These Cleveland Vance, of North Carolina, was indignant said he should not remove until the expira- at the indifference and even disrespect with tion of their terms unless they had failed which he was treated by the President with to be "decent public servants” and had regard to the patronage of his own State, proved "offensive partisans.” In his in- but he saw the humorous side of the situation well enough to be reminded of one of office-holder as an unworthy official and his own legal cases which concerned a small offensive partisan, and, helped by Demoestate left by an old man to his two sons. cratic Senators and Congressmen, to wield The settlement was repeatedly put off by with considerable effect the political axe. the court, to the disgust of the heirs, until There was much available administrative at last the elder son broke out: “Durned if talent in the United States, which was by I ain't almost sorry the old man died.” no means confined to the Republican party,
"In thc first year and a half of my ad- and competent Democrats might have been ministration,” said Cleveland to a New had for the lucrative positions, had Senators York World reporter, “the same battle and Representatives based their recomwas fought day after day.” A study of the mendations on merit instead of on personal conditions enables us to realize this and fealty and party work. They followed, into sympathize with the President. At first stead, the custom which had been in force the reformers were pretty well satisfied. since Andrew Jackson's time, with the The reappointment of Henry G. Pearson, result that many bad appointments were the efficient Republican postmaster of made. The Indianapolis post-office under New York City, and the reinstatement of the management of the new Democratic Silas W. Burt, another Republican, in the postmaster was an example of offensive naval office, were considered excellent partisanship. Senator Gorman, of Marymoves as showing high regard for the merit land, was one of the evil geniuses of the system; and such selections were evidence Cleveland administration; his influence was of resistance to an enormous amount of potent, and his recommendations were pressure from political friends and sup- generally bad. The Federal service in porters. The appointments of a Demo- Baltimore was filled with spoilsmen and cratic business man* for collector of the ward-heelers, and it is charged that even port of New York and of a Democrat, who criminals found places, so that Maryland had declared for reform, as surveyor, and became the worst blot on the President's the advancement to the appraisership of a record as a civil service reformer. deputy and expert, were also proof of the Cleveland complained bitterly of having President's sincerity. When Eaton ten- been deceived by "lying and treacherous dered his resignation as Civil Service Com- representations." For instance, after his missioner (July 28, 1885) he gave testimony appointment of a certain territorial judge, of the faithful enforcement of the Pendleton wherein he had been influenced largely by law and of the rules made in accordance a petition in the man's favor, he was surtherewith. But as time went on and re- prised to receive a letter from one of the movals of Republicans and appointments signers, a politician, saying that the comof Democrats, outside of the classified munity and especially those who had put service, were made, especially in the Post- their names to the petition had received Office, Treasury, and Interior Departments, advice of the appointment with "astonishthe reformers became lukewarm in ap- ment and regret, if not pain.” I signed proval of their President. Stating that the petition, he went on to say, “thinking during the first six months of Cleveland's it would never be considered, and not for administration 524 out of 2,300 presiden- one moment believing the appointment was tial post-offices had received new post possible.” For the man was utterly unmasters and 6,309 changes among 49,000 fit for the place. fourth-class postmasters had been made, The enthusiastic approval of the civil serthe Civil Service Record said with truth, vice reformers during the first few months “This is something of a sweep though far of the administration was succeeded by from a clean sweep.” Working on the criticism which Cleveland felt keenly. As theory that as fast as vacancies occurred or early as September, 1885, he showed his could be made, Democrats should replace irritation in a letter to Eaton, in which he Republicans, it was natural and easy for spoke of "the supercilious self-righteousa zealous Democratic Secretary or Post- ness” of certain civil service reformers who master-General to regard a Republican “discredit every effort not in exact accord
with their attenuated ideas, decry with * The collector turned out to be a poor selection; he was unbusinesslike in his administration.
carping criticism the labor of those actually