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replied, “Clean shot," and told me to sit my for transportation to the hospitals in down. As I backed up against the little sta- Manila. Warner and I, not being in the tion building I saw Warner, the regimental habit of walking on our hands, were able to sergeant-major who had been at my side take care of ourselves for the time being, and through every fight of the campaign, reclin- went back to division head-quarters, Gening against the wall, and looking decidedly eral MacArthur and his staff having come peevish. I said, “Warner, where did you up and established themselves in a field a get it?" He held up his left hand, and it few hundred yards to the rear. The general was a most remarkable coincidence that we had heard that I had been hit, but not serihad been hit in exactly the same place, bar- ously, and as I came up with my bandaged ring the fraction of an inch. My hand was hand, and khaki blouse drenched with blood, being bound up, and I was not yet on my feet said very quietly, as if he were making a rewhen General Wheaton, who, accompanied mark about the weather, “Well, Funston, by Captain H. C. Cabell and Lieutenants F. you got it at last. I am glad it is no worse." D. Webster, P. P. Russell, and E. S. Kimmel In the meantime ambulances were colof his staff, had crossed the bridge and hur- lecting to take us back to the Bag-Bag River ried on foot toward the sound of the firing, bridge, where we could take a train to Manjoined us. The general, seeing the men lying ila. The ride was a very trying one, the road down behind the railroad track, and engaging being horribly rough, and the four native in a fire fight with the enemy on their front, horses that we had on our vehicle being and noting the fact that I had been wounded, very fractious. I rode on the seat with the misunderstood the situation, thinking that driver, the interior of the ambulance being the men had “flunked,'' and strode among very properly reserved for those who were them. With his tremendous voice he called not able to sit up. Among these was Capout, “Get on your feet, you damned mice, tain Dillon of the First Montana, a redlying down here, with your colonel shot. haired Irishman with a brogue that would Get on your feet, and charge."

have turned the edge of a knife. He was My bandage having been put on, I got desperately hurt, shot clear through the up and ran toward the general to explain body, and suffered intensely as we were the situation, telling him that I had ordered jolted over the atrocious road. On one the men to lie down. But it was too late. occasion we stopped to enable the driver to One company had risen and started forward, untangle the leaders from a clump of bamfollowed quickly by the other two, Com- boo near the roadside, and the suffering pany G having in the meantime been de- captain called out, “Dhriver, is the domned ployed. It was a quick dash, and soon road all like this?” Being assured that it over. The general, accompanied by his was, he replied, “Well, be God, I'll get out staff officers, was on the firing line, and I and walk," but he was not allowed to try was a few yards to their left. The recol- the experiment. lection of that little charge is one of the But all things end at last, and at about things that I treasure. The fiery old vet- ten o'clock at night the ambulances with eran discharging his revolver and calling their loads of suffering and groaning men out to the men near him to shoot faster and reached the Bag-Bag, the wounded were “burn their powder," and the general hub- carried in litters across the now partially bub and excitement gave us a lively minute. repaired railway bridge, and placed on the There could be but one result. We had cov- train awaiting them. There was no light ered but half the distance when the Filipinos in the ordinary day coach that we occupied, began to break and run to the rear. They and the heat was stiling, but finally we were followed by storms of bullets, but our pulled into Manila. As the train stopped men were so exhausted that their shooting at Caloocan I was handed a telegram adwas about the worst I have ever seen, dressed to me as a brigadier-general. It notwithstanding which fact the enemy left was signed by Col. Thomas H. Barry, now on the ground a heavy toll of killed and Major-General Barry, and read, “Congratwounded. Some of the bravest had fired ulations. Shake, if your wounded hand will until we were within fifty yards of them. permit. No man better deserves the star."

Darkness was now coming on. We gath- For a moment I was dazed, not unered up our wounded and those of the ene- derstanding what was meant, but it soon dawned on me that a cable had been re- dressed. In ten days I was allowed to received from Washington announcing my turn to duty, though the hand had to be carpromotion to the grade of brigadier-general ried in a sling for a couple of weeks more. of volunteers. It had been quick work, be- General Wheaton had been assigned to ing largely the result of the passage of the the command of another brigade for the Rio Grande at Calumpit, only a week be- purpose of participating in important operfore, and was brought about by a cabled rec- ations on the “South Line,” so that, much ommendation from the corps commander, to my gratification, I was assigned to the Major-General Elwell S. Otis, based on the command of the First Brigade of the Second reports and recommendations of Generals Division, and so had my old regiment and MacArthur and Wheaton. I must confess the First Montana until they were relieved that I was highly gratified, and nearly forgot by two regular regiments. The narrative of the throbbing in my hand. . My wound was the lively fighting around San Fernando, not so severe that I was compelled to go to Pampanga, which had been occupied by our the hospital, but I was allowed to live in troops on the evening of the engagement at quarters, going once a day to have my hand Santo Tomas, forms another story.

THE NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CONVENTIONS

OF 1880 AND 1884
By James Ford Rhodes

BIG A YES became president on world, and was received both in Europe

March 4, 1877, and was con- and in Asia with distinguished courtesies

fronted with a Democratic never before accorded to an American E House chosen in the presi- citizen. Full reports of his progress were

dential year. The elections given by the newspapers, and every one felt

A of 1878 resulted in a Demo- a glow of pride in reading of the honors becratic House and Senate, and there were stowed upon the representative of his counfew to predict Republican success in 1880. try. When Grant arrived at San Francisco Hayes had alienated the “Stalwarts” by in September, 1879, he was certainly the his Southern policy and the party workers most popular man in the United States. by his efforts to reform the Civil Service, His reception in that city could not but, despite factional troubles, there was have been more enthusiastic, and the leia strong undercurrent of confidence in the surely trip thence to Chicago was attended Republican party, due to the President's by a continuous ovation, which was later wise administration and to the improve- repeated when he went from his old home ment in business and financial conditions. of Galena to Philadelphia. The demonThat this was felt by the politicians is evi- strations were a non-partisan tribute to the dent from the eager competition for the first citizen of the country, but as the “Grant Republican presidential nomination of boom” was already well in progress, those 1880. The Senatorial triumvirate, Conk- favoring it did not scruple to make political ling, of New York, J. D. Cameron, of capital out of the enthusiasm elicited by Pennsylvania, and Logan, of Illinois, were their candidate. The Senatorial triumvirate first in the field with their warm advocacy had no assurance from Grant that their efof General Grant, whom, in the various forts met with his favor, but Conkling, from ways necessary to bring a man before the intimate association with him during his country, they put forward as a candidate presidency, knew his man and was well during the year preceding the convention. aware that his silence gave consent.

Soon after the expiration of his second In August, 1879, Grant wrote to Badeau term, Grant started on a tour round the in a private letter, “I am not a candidate for any office nor would I hold one that re- by fair means or foul "count in” their canquired any mancuvring, or sacrifice to didate unless they had for their opponent obtain ”; and, during the first few months the resolute and warlike Grant. after his home-coming, his position un- Cameron was the first to produce redoubtedly was that if the Republican party sults, having called the Pennsylvania State unanimously, or nearly so, demanded that Convention for the early date of February 4, he should be their candidate, he would but he had to encounter in his State a deem it his duty to comply with their wish. strong feeling for Blaine who, next to Twice he had been unanimously nominated Grant, was the most formidable candidate. and, as he believed that he had served his Cameron, however, was audacious and had country well in the presidential chair, it is a powerful machine. He dominated the not surprising that he thought the nomina- Convention, which by a vote of 133 to 113 tion might be offered him again with one instructed the delegates to the National voice. While the feeling against a third Convention to vote for Grant and then, term might have prevented in any case a without a division, adopted the unit rule. unanimous call, yet had Grant rounded The unit rule implied that the whole vote out his military career by making an excel- of the State should be cast for the candidate lent president, it is almost certain that, in whose favor the instructions were given, when the Convention met, he would have and that, on all questions coming before the had a sufficient following to secure his National Convention, a majority of the nomination, by a good majority, on the first delegation should decide how the State, as ballot. Adept as were the Senatorial tri- a whole, should vote. Three weeks later, umvirate in all the arts of political manipu- Conkling followed with his New York State lation, they could not have hoped for suc- Convention, which he conducted with great cess had not Grant been strong with a mass skill, although in one respect his task was of the people whose thoughts dwelt upon easier than Cameron's, inasmuch as the senhim at Appomattox, rather than in the timént for Grant was stronger in New York White House. Those national traditions, than in Pennsylvania. He did not deem it to be sure, which implied distrust of the wise or necessary to provide for the unit rule continuance of one man in high office with in unequivocal language, but, by deft manthe possible consequences of personal am- agement, he had the Convention adopt a bition shaping the country's policy and mis- resolution which implied this rule without using the patronage, supplied an argument arrogantly overriding the minority. well-nigh unanswerable against a third term While the Pennsylvania and New York directly succeeding the second; but little Conventions gave an impetus to the boom weight should be attached to these consid- for Grant, they showed that instead of the erations in the case of a former president. party calling upon him with one voice for

Early in 1880 Grant went to Cuba and its leader, his nomination must be fought was out of the country a little over two for in the manner of ordinary candidates. months. Meanwhile, the Senatorial tri- The attitude of Grant himself reflects the umvirate were actively at work. It was change in his opinion from December 1879 argued that Grant was needed to maintain to May 1880. In December, while in Philaa vigorous Southern policy and to protect delphia, he was asked, “Will you not be the negro at the South in his exercise of the disappointed, after such an ovation from suffrage. Already, through the suppression San Francisco to Philadelphia, if you are of the negro vote, the Democrats had se- not returned to the presidency?” “No, cured the House and the Senate and, al- not at all, but Mrs. Grant would," was his though a number of Southern States had reply. In January George William Curvoted for Grant in 1868 and 1872, and for tis thought that, though he did not seek Hayes in 1876, it was evident that in 1880 the nomination, he expected it and, before the “solid South” (that is, all the former the end of February, the general impresslave States), would be for the Democratic sion was that he would take it in any honcandidate. Moreover, so the argument ran, orable way that he could get it. In May, the Democrats, indignant at the manner of his bosom friend, General Sherman, wrote their defeat in 1876, and now having pos- in a private letter: “Grant is still a cansession of the Senate and the House, would didate, but, instead of being nominated by acclamation, will have to scramble for it, tricts was Grant's own. Soon afterward a thing I cannot help but regret, as his there was an indignant mass-meeting in career heretofore is so splendid that I can- Chicago. It was decided to send antinot help feeling it impaired by common Grant delegates from these nine districts politics. He could so nobly rest on his and carry the contest into the National laurels, but his family and his personal Convention. dependents prod him on, and his best The date fixed for the assembling of this friends feel a delicacy about offering advice Convention was Wednesday, June 2, and not asked.” Grant's situation supplies a the place Chicago. Before the appointed commentary on the neglect of its ex-Presi- day, many prominent delegates and the dents by a great nation, which might give advocates of the several candidates came them some official position with a liberal together in order to settle certain prelimisalary or, at all events, grant them a suf- naries by private discussion and conference ficient pension to enable them to live in rather than to carry all dissensions into the dignified retirement. For Grant needed a great Convention hall. This pre-Convenjob. He loved city life and the society of tion work had for its centre the Republican rich men, but had not sufficient wealth to National Committee, a body always existreside in New York, unless he could obtain ent, composed of one member from each such employment as would give him an State and Territory. The contest in the addition to his private means. This fact, Committee, and, indeed, in the Convention, together with the feeling that, if the coun- until the balloting for candidates began, try elected him for another term, its careful resolved itself into one between the Grant choice would be a vindication of his two and anti-Grant forces. A majority of the administrations, led him, as events pro- members of the Committee were opposed gressed, to grasp eagerly for the prize. to Grant's nomination, but Senator J. D.

The opposition to Grant kept pace with Cameron was chairman and the fact of his the movement in his favor and at first was holding this position prompted the triumbased almost entirely on the deep-seated virate to a bold plan to secure the organizaconviction that a third term was undesir- tion of the Convention. It was the rule for able, but, as the canvass grew in heat, the the chairman of the National Committee scandals of his administrations were re- to call the Convention to order and then to vived and urged as a reason why the great give way to a temporary chairman selected trust should not again be committed to by the Committee. The Committee's his hands. Blaine had a large following, choice would be anti-Grant, but Cameron and was as good a Stalwart as Grant him- would recognize a motion from the floor to self, having indeed coined the appellation. substitute a Grant man, and on this vote John Sherman, the Secretary of the Treas- he would apply the unit rule and likewise ury, and Senator Edmunds were advocated on any appeal from his ruling. The temby those who approved of Hayes's ad- porary chairman so chosen would continue ministration, Edmunds being the first the same parliamentary practice, a permachoice of the Independent Republicans, nent organization friendly to Grant would while E. B. Washburne, of Illinois, had a be effected and he would be nominated on certain support.

the first ballot. An analysis of the delegaLogan was the last of the Senatorial tri- tions shows clearly that, if the unit rule umvirate to do his special work and his could have been enforced, this plan might Convention did not meet until the 19th of have been carried out to the letter. The May. In Illinois it had been the custom plan leaked out and the anti-Grant men for the State Convention to choose all the were in dismay, for they lacked cohesion delegates, the district delegates as well as and were supporting several candidates, those from the State at large, and this cus- while the Grant party was like a military tom was now followed, with the result that a force obeying implicitly its leaders. On solid delegation for Grant was selected, but, May 30 Garfield arrived in Chicago, and under Logan's management, the proceed- brought order out of chaos by insisting that ings were so high-handed that nine Con- the defeat of the unit rule was more imgressional districts at once entered a protest portant than the nomination of any candiand it was significant that one of these dis- date. He, with a number of other delegates, representing different candidates, waited the public sofas, he apparently desired perupon Conkling and gave him to under- sonal homage from the crowd of lookersstand that, on questions of organization, on who, coming from various States to the anti-Grant men would act together witness a Convention and shout for their Under this inspiration, which brought jar- candidate, wandered about the hotels, eager ring elements into union, the majority of to see the leaders of their party. Perhaps the National Committee threatened to de- he thought to win favor for Grant by treatpose Cameron as chairman unless this plan ing the crowd with unusual affability. His of the triumvirate should be abandoned. entrance into the Convention hall was a A compromise was arrived at. Senator studied performance. Waiting until the George F. Hoar, who was neither for Grant opening prayer had secured order, he nor for Blaine, was agreed upon as tempo- moved with a graceful stride down the long rary chairman, and the question of the unit aisle, his physical attractions displayed to rule went to the Convention where the anti- the best advantage. And, like a popular Grant forces were in a majority. John M. actor coming upon the stage, he got his Forbes, who was the Massachusetts mem- round of applause. But, once in his seat, ber of the National Committee and an In- he laid affability aside and, relishing the dependent, made this private note of opin- contentious part of his mission, he allowed ion and of the action of the majority: the spirit of domination full sway and, by “In spite of the objections to Grant, I sarcastic words and sneering tone, irritated preferred him, as being an honest man, to his opponents and alienated wavering deleBlaine; but, for the purposes of a fair or- gates whom different tactics might have ganization of the Convention, a combination won to his cause. Nevertheless, his leaderwith the Blaine leaders was necessary, and ship was effective in holding the following by patience and firmness we prevented the of Grant together without a break. When breaking up of the Convention."

Conkling, early on the second day, was The Convention building on the shore of arguing in favor of his motion for a recess, the lake was said to be “one of the most Garfield, the time of whose entrance had splendid barns that was ever constructed.” perhaps been craftily arranged, entered the It held the delegates, alternates, press report- hall, eliciting a burst of cheers which ers, officials, distinguished guests, and ten drowned Conkling's voice. These two, thousand spectators. The acoustic proper- brought into opposition in this episode, reties were good. Flags and pictures of prom- mained antagonists throughout the Coninent Republicans covered the walls. The vention, and it was an encounter of giants. weather was comfortably cool during the Garfield was fair, conciliatory, persuasive, first part of the proceedings, and the demand and in every move and speech made friends for tickets to the galleries was great. The for his cause-opposition to the unit rule Convention was called to order at noon of and the third term. Wednesday, June 2, by Cameron, who, after The first conflict in the Convention hall a few remarks, said that the Republican between Conkling and Garfield occurred National Committee had instructed him to early on the third day when Conkling ofplace in nomination, as temporary chair- fered a resolution that each delegate was man, George F. Hoar. Hoar was elected bound in honor to support the candidate, unanimously and, on taking the chair, made whoever he might be, and all who refused a brief speech, when the Convention accom- should lose their seats in the Convention. plished some routine business and, after a On a roll-call of the States the ayes were session of three hours, adjourned until the 716, the noes 3. On this announcement next day.

Conkling moved that all who had voted no Conkling and Garfield were the heroes had forfeited their votes in this Convention. of the Convention and led the opposing These three were from West Virginia; they forces. Conkling stopped at the Grand rose in their places and said that they inPacific Hotel, and, despite his supercilious tended to support the nominee, but did not manner, courted publicity. While eating deem the resolution wise. It was a question his breakfast he was gaped at by curious how the Convention would act, to what crowds. Frequenting the office, the lobby, extent it might rebuke this exhibition of and other public rooms, and reclining on independence, when Garfield rose and, in

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