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ART INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED American Water Color Society of New York STATES

reported that its fifth rotary collection, that IN the "Field of Art” for November, 1896, of 1909-10, was shown in the following cities:

was given a brief account of the origin and St. Louis, Buffalo, Columbia, Mo.; Pittsburg,

subsequent development of some of the Grand Rapids, Toledo, Cincinnati, Indianapmore important institutions, museums, soci- olis, Detroit, Chicago, and Jackson, Mich.; eties, schools, etc., in this country, but in the and that applications from the following had course of fifteen years the further growth of to be declined because dates could not be arthat interest in the fine arts, in nearly all their ranged: Kansas City, Utica, Erie, Pa.; Minnebranches, which was then noted as promising apolis, Youngstown, O.; Louisville, Nashville, has become phenomenal, if we may believe Baltimore, Omaha, Saginaw, Palo Alto, and present-day records. As the start was made Long Beach, Cal. In theory, each local inab nihilo-an Eastern portrait painter of the stitution receiving one of these collections for last generation has recorded the statement of exhibition in its gallery sends a catalogue and one of his sitters, from a thriving Western a report to the parent society and a catalogue community, that none of his fellow-citizens to each exhibitor, but it has been known to haphad a work of art “worth more than five dol- pen that these measures were neglected and lars, and if he has anything in color, it's a that neither the officers of the home society nor chromo”-this growth is encouraging. Art the individual exhibitors knew for some time museums, societies and schools, galleries for where the “rotary” was. exhibitions, have multiplied greatly under the The American Art Annual for 1910-11 enuspur of this laudable civic pride, and the re- merates 944 art museums, art societies, and lapses have been few and, generally, tempo- art schools as against 403 in 1907. This volrary. An overconfidence in the future and ume gives a brief account of 280 museums and an underestimate of the financial drain have art societies in the United States, a list of 102 sometimes led to periods of suspension; in art schools with a total registration of 31,700 the desire to secure the best examples, with- and a list tabulating the answers received out duly considering the taste of the local pur- from 170 colleges and universities maintaining chasers, an agent has been despatched to make courses in the history of art and giving 5,877 the tour of the more important art centres and as the number of students receiving instrucsolicit the loan of pictures and small works of tions in this course and 7,751 as the number sculpture, and the cost of packing, shipping who had worked in the studios. Of the art and insuring, exhibiting and returning, has schools, the records show 57 as strictly prodemanded a larger number of purchases and fessional, giving instruction in drawing, modsubscriptions than were always forthcoming. elling, and painting from the antique and from It is only to the largest and most important life. Instruction in design is given in 56 exhibitions, as those of Philadelphia, Pitts- schools, 39 of which report also classes in the burg, Buffalo, and Chicago, that the painters various crafts, such as bookbinding, pottery, and sculptors are willing to pay their own and metal work. While the United States lack freight if their works have not been selected “the well-organized industrial schools that are by a jury, and to this expense is to be added such a strong factor in Germany, France, and the risk, or rather the certainty, of damage England," the teaching of manual training and in transit.

of æsthetics in the elementary and secondary An important feature in this establishment and public schools has, nevertheless, “grown of a healthy circulation has been the sending very rapidly.” This, naturally, has led to * e out of “rotary” collections, frequently se- establishment of ni ual art schools for we lected from an annual exhibition in an Eastern training of teachers in this work, and of these city. These are usually limited to small pict- the records show 39 art schools with normal ures, at moderate prices, or small bronzes for courses, the registration of which in 28 was the sculptures, and the sales have been, gen- 1,928. The summer schools play an imporerally, sufficiently numerous to justify the tant part in the training of teachers, and the enterprise, about one-fifth of the whole. The evening schools of students. VOL. L.-24

253 :

The number of architectural federations in Washington, D. C., and which is practically the country has doubled, since 1907, from two the “clearing-house" and "exchange” of all to four, and there are 31 professional schools the art organizations in the country, a general of architecture, most of them connected with bureau of information charged with the genuniversities, the number of pupils enrolled eral furtherance of the art interests. It was being given as 3,043. An estimate of the an- formed at a convention held in Washington in nual expenditures for art education in the May, 1909, at which over eighty art societies United States, compiled by Henry Turner and institutions were represented by delegates, Bailey in 1908, is given in this volume as a total and this step is considered to be “the most imof $11,565,241, “divided between the Federal portant event in the art life of the United Government, the States, the municipalities, and States" within the last three years. The exprivate sources. The Federal Government, tent of its jurisdiction may be inferred from however, makes no direct appropriation for the list of its standing committees: an execuart instruction, the item of $95,000 used for in- tive committee, one each on exhibitions, paintstruction in drawing in the public schools of ings, membership, landscape, sculpture, craftsthe District of Columbia, the Military Academy manship, conventions, museums, architecture, at West Point, and the Naval Academy being government art, civil theatres, publications, included in the general school funds.”

finance, exhibitions and lectures in universiWhile the oft-proposed establishment of a ties, art in the public schools, and teaching the national, official, art, with head-quarters at the history of art in universities and colleges. Its national capital, is still probably, happily, far officers are Charles L. Hutchinson, of Chicago, in the distant future, a commendable official president; Marvin F. Schaife, of Pittsburg, body has been established by Congress, May treasurer; Frank D. Millet, secretary, and 17, 1910, a “Commission of Fine Arts for the Leila Mechlin, assistant secretary. The govFederal Government." This commission, de- ernment is administered by a board of difined in the bill as “permanent,” is composed rectors elected by the vote of accredited delof "seven well-qualified judges of the fine egates at the annual convention in May, and arts," appointed by the President and to serve at present it numbers 126 chapters, societies four years each and until their successors are representing all the arts and numbering in the appointed and qualified;-its general duties are aggregate about 63,000 persons, and over 1,100 to “advise generally upon questions of art individual associate members. A monthly ilwhen required to do so by the President, or by lustrated magazine is published; exhibitions of any committee of either House of Congress," paintings and other works of art are organand its special functions are to act as an art ized and sent out (o in the last year were sent commission for the District of Columbia and to 33 different cities), and lectures, type-written advise upon the selection and location of and illustrated by fifty or more stereopticon statues, fountains, monuments, and other pub- slides, are lent to small cities and towns relic works of art erected under the authority of mote from art centres. the United States. “It shall be the duty of the The largest and most important annual exhiofficers charged by law to determine such ques- bitions of painting and sculpture are still those tions in each case to call for such advice." An of Pittsburg, Philadelphia, Chicago, Buffalo, expenditure of not more than $10,000 a year St. Louis, the National Academy of Design was authorized for this purpose. The present in New York, and the biennial exhibition of members of the commission are Daniel H. the Corcoran Gallery of Art. Mr. Carnegie's Burnham, chairman; Francis D. Millet, vice- great Institute in Pittsburg, which opened its chairman; Frederick Law Olmstead, Thomas first exhibition in November, 1896, still reHastings, Daniel C. French, Cass Gilbert, and tains its pre-eminence, being the only one interCharles Moore; Col. Spencer Cosby, secretary. national in scope. The reports of its annual As may be remembered, this commission, duly exhibition show a curious fluctuation in the atestablished by act of Congress, succeeded the tendance and the number of catalogues sold short-lived one appointed by President Roose- —for the first, over 351,000 in 1908, over 48,000 velt in the last days of his administration with- in 1909, and over 101,000 in 1910; and for the out such authority.

second, for the same period, over 11,000, over Next in rank to this Federal commission 3,000, and over 5,000 respectively. The numcomes probably the American Federation of ber of acquisitions to the museum and galArts, the head-quarters of which are also in leries has, however, increased from 5,993 in 1908 and 6,435 in 1909 to 14,591 in 1910. One Samuel Isham, treasurer; Jesse Lynch Williams, feature of the Institute's educational activities secretary, and a distinguished list of vicehas been that introduction into the public presidents; the membership is limited to 250, schools of works of art and reproductions and in the Department of Art there are 79 which, in connection with the decoration of the members. A gold medal is awarded every buildings, originated in France and Germany year in the various sections of artistic, literary some thirty years ago—in this case, of large and musical activity; that of 1909 was given photographs representing the Institute's per- to the work of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and manent collection of paintings, the number be- presented to Mrs. Saint-Gaudens on November ing increased each year.

20 of that year at a meeting held in the AmerBuffalo dates the origin of its art academy ican Fine Arts Building, New York. The from the first exhibition held in 1861, and since medal for 1910 was presented in December of July 1, 1909, it has been enjoying an annual that year to James Ford Rhodes, historian. appropriation from the city toward the main- By a resolution adopted April 23, 1904, a sectenance of its exhibitions in the Albright Art tion of the institute to be known as the AcadGallery. The total attendance for 1909, the emy of Arts and Letters was created, the memlatest given, was 113,676, with twenty-two bership at first limited to thirty, with power to exhibitions and six lectures on art. The late elect its own officers and prescribe its own director, Mr. Charles M. Kurtz, has been suc- rules. Public meetings of the institute and ceeded by his assistant, Miss Cornelia B. the academy were held in Washington in DeSage. The Pennsylvania Academy of the cember, 1909, and in New York in December, Fine Arts, dating from 1805, estimates the 1910. value of its permanent collections of paintings The practical tendencies of this general recas, probably, $2,000,000; the attendance dur- ognition of the necessity of a finer culture in ing 1909 was 182,228; and its schools are our daily affairs cannot be better illustrated among the first in the country. The Boston than by the movement in some of the Western Museum of the Fine Arts formally opened its communities to include it in the tax list. The new building with a reception on November State Legislature of Missouri passed an act to 9, 1909, the school of the museum being lo- give all cities in the State with a population of cated in a separate building. The structural over 100,000 the right to submit the question separation of the main building into depart of an art tax at any general election held in the ments representing peoples instead of arts has city, and the city of St. Louis accordingly modified the historical arrangement, the re- voted, by a large majority, that such tax be sult being "that objects in any one room, levied on the assessed valuation of the property often most different in the materials employed, of the city to the extent of one-fifth of a mill per are essentially homogeneous from the point of dollar. At present this brings to the support view of art.” It is admitted that this course of the City Art Museum about $120,000 a would probably not be possible for art mu- year, with a prospect of further and constant seums with very large collections. Another increase. St. Louis claims the credit of befeature, introduced by the museum in 1907, ing the first city to establish a municipal art has been followed with some variations else- gallery. In Indianapolis an agreement was where, as in the Metropolitan Museum of New reached in 1908 between the art association York—the providing of a guide who will ex- of the city and the public schools whereby the plain to the visitors such portions of the col- board of school commissioners pays to the lections as they may wish. In the Boston association a sum equal to one-half cent on Museum this guide is an officer of the insti- each hundred dollars of the city's taxables, the tution, known as the docent, and his instruc- association in return admitting free to its tion is furnished gratuitously, upon previous museum the teachers and pupils of the schools, application.

providing weekly illustrated lectures, free inAiming to supplement the numerous local struction in design, etc. The sum thus adart institutions scattered throughout the coun- vanced amounted in 1910 to $8,953. try with a wider view and a more general ju- The American Academy in Rome for paintrisdiction, the National Institute of Arts and ers, sculptors, and architects, dating from 1897, Letters was organized in 1898 with a view to awards its Prix de Rome to students from the the advancement of art, music, and literature. various art schools throughout the country and The officers are John W. Alexander, president; the privileges of the academy in Rome to the holders of the Rinehart and Lazarus Scholar- 12. National Sculpture Society, New York.

13. National Society of Mural Painters, New ships, the first for sculptors and the second York. for painters. At this date the total number 14. American Water Color Society, New York.

15. New York Water Color Club, New York,

16. Art Museum, Worcester, Mass. painters, and 8 sculptors, whose terms in the 17. Walters Gallery, Baltimore, Md. The new academy have ranged from one to three vears: gallery, housing the private collection of Henry

ps. Walters, was opened with a reception on February the sculptors of the Rinehart Scholarship take 3, 1909: the term for four years. For the competitions 18. Wadsworth Athenæum, Hartford, Conn.

Opened to the public in 1842; said to be the first for this prize for 1911, 65 architects have building erected in the United States devoted enentered, 22 painters, and 6 sculptors.

tirely to the purposes of art. The Morgan Memorial

Art Annex, founded by J. Pierpont Morgan in honor In New York city, a well-organized move

of his father, was dedicated January 19, 1910. ment has at length been set on foot "for the 19. Yale School of Fine Arts, New Haven, Conn.

Founded in 1864; the art museum includes the Jarerection of a building for the exhibition of

ves and Trumbull collections. all the Arts of Design,” and for the use of 20. Institute of Art, San Francisco, Cal. the ten art societies which have been invited 21. Art Museum, Cincinnati, O.

22. City Art Museum, St. Louis, Mo. A city to join, and "for such others as they may ordinance approved February 23, 1900, established hereafter invite." These ten are the Na- a public museum of fine arts to be located in the

building erected by the Louisiana Purchase Expositional Academy of Design, the two Water

tion Company in Forest Park, and presented to the Color Societies, the New York Chapter Ameri- city at the close of the exposition. can Institute of Architects, the Architectural In33. Jo

chitectural 23. John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis, League, the National Sculpture Society, the 24. Museum, Rhode Island School of Design, Municipal Art Society, that of the Beaux- Providence, R: I:

25. Municipal Art Gallery, Chicago, Ill. EsArts Architects, that of the Mural Painters tablished in 1902 to contain works by Chicago and that of the Illustrators. The National artists. Academy, which has taken the lead in this

26. Art Association, Museum, New Orleans, La.

27. Washington State Art Association, Seattle, movement and gives its name to the proposed Wash. Incorporated in March, 1906, "for the purassociation, being entitled to a strong repre

pose of erecting and maintaining an art gallery and

museum and establishing an art school.” sentation on the board of directors, under- 28. Gibbes Memorial Art Gallery, Carolina Art takes to set apart on its books, on completion

Association, Charleston, S. C.

29. Telfair Academy, Savannah, Ga. of the building, the sum of $200,000 as a 30. Fort Worth Art Association, Fort Worth, Maintenance Endowment Fund, the interest

Tex. Organized February 13, 1910, to take over

the management of the Fort Worth Museum of Art. of which shall be applied toward defraying

31. State Art Commission of Illinois. Created the annual running expenses of the building by the act of the General Assembly, June 4, 1909. Ample provision is to be made for spacious L3

32. Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, New Orleans,

La. Sum of $150,000 given by the donor in 1910. galleries, lecture-rooms, offices, etc., and in Building now in process of erection. the coming autumn it is planned to invite

33. St. Paul Institute of Arts and Sciences, St.

Paul, Minn. Modelled on the plan of the Brookco-operation of the general public ard lyn Institute; incorporated April 28, 1908. push the movement vigorously.

34. State Art Society, the Capitol, St. Paul, Minn. The list below is given only as a partial one Founded in January, 1910.

35. Art Society and Museum, Minneapolis, Minn. of the more representative examples of these 36. Detroit Museum of Art, Detroit, Mich. Two institutions.

blocks purchased in centre of city in 1910 for the

erection of a new museum. 1. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. 37. Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, O. New 2. Carnegie Institute, Pittsburg, Pa.

art gallery now being erected. 3. Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, N. Y.

38. Portland Society of Art, Portland, Me. 4. Fine Arts Federation, New York. The coun Museum building now being erected. cil consists of representatives and alternates chosen 39. Art Association, Art Gallery, Portland, Ore. by the thirteen art societies of the city.

Reorganized 1909-10. 5. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Phila 40. Art Association, University of Kansas, Art delphia.

Gallery, Lawrence, Kan. 6. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 41. Art Association, Travelling Exhibitions, Brooklyn, N. Y. Founded in 1824; reincorporated Richmond, Ind. in 1890.

42. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, O. 7. Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Plans have been drawn for an art gallery to be erected 8. Chicago Art Institute, Chicago, Ill. The in Wade Park at a cost of about $1,000,000, Hutchinson

son Gallery of Old Masters and the Munger 4.3. State Art Society, Utah. Founded in 1808: Gallery opened with a reception October 22, 1908; the first of its kind. Annual exhibitions held in new galleries of the east wing opened October 19, different parts of the State. Provision has been 1909.

made for the erection of an art gallery in the new 9. National Academy of Design, New York. Capitol, where all the paintings purchased by the 10. Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. State will be gathered.

II. National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.'c.

WILLIAM WALTON.

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