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be wrought thereby for his church, as indeed there was, though not according to their construction. For, 4thly, contrary to their expectation, that Tailing spirit did not only not further, but extremely disgrace and prejudice their cause, when it was once perceived from how low degrees of contradiction at first, to what outrage of contumely and flander they were at -length proceeded, and were also likely further to proceed.

A further degree of outrage was in fact: Certain prophetso did arise, who deeming it not possible that God should suffer that undone which they did so fiercely defire to have done, namely that his holy saints, the favourers and fathers of the discipline should be enlarged, and delivered from persecution; and, seeing no means of deliverance ordinary, were fain to perfuade themselves that God must needs raise some extraordinary means : and being persuaded of none so well as of themselves, they forthwith must needs be the instruments of this great work. Hereupon they framed unto themselves an assured hope, that upon their preaching out of a pease-cart all the multitude would have presently joined unto them, and in-amazement of mind have asked them, “ Viri fratres, quid agimus ?” whereunto it is likely they would have returned an anfwer far "unlike to that of St. Peter; “ Such and such are men unworthy to govern, pluck them down : “ such and such are the dear children of God, let them be advanced.” Of two of these men it is meet to speak with all commiseration, yet so that others by their example may receive instruction, and withal some light may appear what stirring affections the discipline is likely to inspire, if it 'light upon apt and prepared minds. Now if any man doubt of what society they were, or if the reformers disclaim them, pretending that by them they were condemned, let these points be considered. 1. Whose associates were they before their entering into this frantic passion? Whose fermons did they frequent? Whom did they admire? 2. Even when they were entering into it, Whose advice did they require? and, when they were in, whose approbation? Whom advertised they of their purpose? Whose asis

prayers did they request? But we deal injuriously with them to lay this to their charge ; for they reproved and condemned it. How? did they disclose it to the magistrate, that it might be suppressed? or were



William Hacket, Edmund Coppinger, and Henry Arthington.

or were they rather content to stand aloof and see the end of it, and loath to quench the spirit? No doubt these mad practitioners were of their society, with whom before, and in the practice of their madness, they had most affi.nity. Hereof read Dr. Bancroft's book'.

A third inducement may be to dislike of the discipline, if we consider not only how far the reformers themselves have proceeded, but what others upon their foundations have built. Here come the Brownists in the first rank, their lineal descendants, who have seized upon a number of strange opinions; whereof although their ancestors, the reformers, were never actually posfeffed, yet by right and interest from them derived, the Brownists and


U u

** Entitled " A Survey of the pretended holy Discipline; to which is prefixed a Sermon - preached against the Puritans, at St Paul's Cross, Feb. 9, 1588-9, from the following Text: Dearly beloved, believe not every Spirit, but try the Spirits whether they be of God, for many false Prophets have gone out into the world. 1 John, iv. 1."

• Robert Brown, a person of a good family in Rutlandshire, educated at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge, was the founder of a sect of Puritans, who took their name from him. He inveighed with the most bitter acrimony against the Church of England, condemning her government as Antichristian, her sacraments as superstitious, and her whole liturgy as a compound of Paganism and Popery. His own syftem of religious institution was explained by him in a book entitled “ A Treatise of Reformation.” He wrote several tracts in support of his opinions, and sustained various persecutions, having been committed at different times to thirty-two prisons, in some of which he could not see his hand at broad-day. Before his removal with his followers to Middleburg in Zealand, he became disgusted with their divisions and disputes; and though, according to Strype, he had gone a farther distance than any of the Puritans did, he renounced his principles of separation, being promoted by his relation, Lord Burghley, to a benefice, that of Achurch in Northamptonshire. - He is represented to have been unamiable in private life: And it is to be lamented that he always pofleffed a turbulent and unquiet disposition. He died in a prison, in 1630, in the Soth year of his age, having been sent thither by a justice of the peace for assaulting a constable, who was executing a warrant against him. (Strype's Life of Whitgift, B. IV. C. I. and Appendix, No. 45. Of the Brownifts, fee Fuller's Church History, B. IX. p. 168, and Mosheim's Ecclef. Hist. Vol. IV. p. 98.) It

appears from a passage in Shakespear that the Brownists were treated as objects of satire: “ Policy I hate ; I had as lief be a Brownist as a politician.” (Twelfth Night, A. III. Sc. 11.) -". Why now thou art a good knave, worth a hundred Brownists.” (The Puritan, A. III. Sc. VI.)

and Barrowists' have taken possession of them. For if the positions of the reformers be true, I cannot see how the main and general conclusions of Brownisin should be false. For

upon these two points, as I conceive, they stand:

1. That because we have no church, they are to sever themselves from us. 2. That without civil authority they are to erect a church of their own.

And if the former of these be true, the latter I suppose will follow. For if above all things, men be to regard their salvation ; and if out of the church there be no falvation, it followeth, that if we have no church, we have no means of salvation ; and therefore separation from us in that respect is both lawful and necessary. As also, that men, so separated from the false and counterfeit church, are to associate themselves unto some church ; not to ours; to the Popish much less; therefore to one of their own making Now the ground of all these inferences being this, that in our church there is no means of salvation, is out of the reformers' principles most clearly to be proved. For wheresoever any matter of faith unto salvation necessary is. denied, there can be no means of salvation ; but in the Church of England, the discipline, by them accounted a matter of faith, and necessary to salvation, is not only denied, but impugned, and the professors thereof oppressed. Ergo..

Again (but this reason perhaps is weak), every true church of Christ acknowledgeth the whole gospel of Christ; the discipline, in their opinion,, is a part of the gospel, and yet by our church resisted. Ergo.

Again, the discipline is essentially united to the church : by which term essentially, they must mean either an essential part, or an effential property.. Both which ways it must needs be, that where that essential difcipline is not, neither is there any church. If, therefore, between them and the Brownists. there should be appointed a solemn disputation, whereof with us they have been oftentimes so earnest challengers; it doth not yet appear what other ' answer they could possibly frame to these and the like arguments, where


* So denominated from Henry Barrow, a layman, and noted fectary, who suffered death for publishing feditious books against the Queen and the State. He derived his doctrine principally from Cartwright; maintaining, among other things, that the church of England was not a true church; that her ministers had no lawful calling; and that the use of forms of prayer was blafphemous. (Of this man and his opinions, see Sir G. Paule's Life of Whitgift, p. 58.Kennet's History of England, Vol. II. p. 571.)

with they might be pressed, but fairly to deny the conclusion (for all the premises are their own), or rather ingeniously to reverse their own principles before laid, whereon so foul absurdities have been so firmly built.

What further proofs you can bring out of their high words, magnifying the discipline, I leave to your better remembrance : but above all points, I am desirous this one should be strongly inforced against them, because it wringeth them most of all, and is of all others (for ought I fee) the most unanswerable. You may, notwithstanding, say, that you would be heartily glad these their positions might so be salved, as the Brownists might not appear to have issued out of their loins; but until that be done, they must give us leave to think that they have cast the feed whereout these tares are grown.

Another sort of men there is, which have been content to run on with the reformers for a time, and to make them poor instruments of their own designs. These are a sort of godless politics, who, perceiving the plot of discipline to consist of these two parts, the overthrow of Episcopal, and

erection of Presbyterial authority, and that this latter can take no place till • the former be removed, are content to join with them in the destructive part of discipline, bearing them in hand, that in the other also they shall find them as ready. But when time shall come, it may be they would be as loath to be yoked with that kind of regiment, as now they are willing to be released from this. These men's ends in all their actions is tò dict, their pretence and colour reformation“. Those things, which under this colour they have effected to their own good, are 1. By maintaining a contrary faction, they have kept the clergy always in awe, and thereby made them more pliable and willing to buy their peace. 2. By maintaining an opinion of equality among ministers, they have made way to their own purposes for devouring cathedral churches and bishops' livings. 3. By exclaiming againft abuses in the church, they have carried their own corrupt dealings in the civil state more covertly. For such is the nature of the multitude, they are not able to apprehend many things at once, so as being possessed with dislike or liking of any one thing, many other in the mean time may escape them without being perceived. 4. They have sought

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u In the later editions the sentence is, “These men's ends in all their actions is distraction; " their pretence and colour reformation."

to disgrace the clergy in entertaining a conceit in men's minds, and confirming it by continual practice, that men of learning, and especially of the clergy, which are employed in the chiefest kind of learning, are not to be admitted, or sparingly admitted, to matters of state ; contrary to the practice of all well-governed commonwealths, and of our own till these late years.

A third sort of men there is, though not descended from the reformers, yet in part raised and greatly strengthened by them, namely, the cursed crew of Atheists. This also is one of those points, which I am desirous you should handle most effectually, and strain yourself therein to all points of motion and affection; as in that of the Brownists, to all strength and finews of reason. This is a fort most damnable, and yet by the general suspicion of the world at this day most common. The causes of it, which are in the parties themselves, although you handle in the beginning of the fifth book, yet here again they may be touched; but the occasions of help, and furtherance, which by the reformers have been yielded unto them, are,, as I conceive, two; senseless preaching, and disgracing of the ministry: for how should not men dare to impugn that which neither by force of reason nor: by authority of persons is maintained: But in the parties themselves these two causes I conceive of Atheism: 1. More abundance of wit than judg-ment, and of witty than judicious learning; whereby they are more in- . clined to contradict any thing, than-willing to be informed of the truth. -. They are not therefore men of sound learning for the most part, but smat-. terers; neither is their kind of difpute fo much by foree of argument, as by scoffing. Which humour of scoffing and turning matters most serious into merriment is now become so common, as we are not to marvel what the prophet means by the seat of scorners, nor what the apostles by fore-telling of scorners to come ; our own age hath verified their speech unto us. Which also may be an argument against these scoffers and Atheists themselves, seeing it hath been so many ages ago foretold; that such men the latter days of the world should afford; which could not be done by any other spirit save that whereunto things future and present are alike. And even for the main question of the resurrection, whereat they stick so mightily, was it not plainly foretold, that men Thould in the latter times say, “Where is the pro

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