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France and Spain ; and also for divers weighty reasons, to enter into an alliance with the state of Venice, and to that end to send ambassadors to those several places, did propose the choice of these employments to Sir Henry Wotton ; who considering the smallness of his own estate (which he never took care to augment), and knowing the courts of great princes to be sumptuous, and necessarily expensive, inclined most to that of Venice, as being a place of more retirement, and best suiting with his genius, who did ever love to join with business, study, and a trial of natural experiments: for both which, fruitful Italy, that darling of Nature, and cherisher of all arts, is so justly famed in all parts of the Christian world. Sir Henry having after some short time and consideration resolved

upon Venice, and a large allowance being appointed by the King for his voyage thither, and a settled maintenance during his stay there, he left England', nobly accompanied through France. to Venice by gentlemen of the best families and breeding that this nation afforded: they were too many to name, but these two, for the following reasons, may not be omitted. Sir Albertus Morton his nephew, who went his secretary; and William Bedel, a man of choice learning, and fan&ified wisdom, who went his chaplain. And though his dear friend Dr. Donne (then a private gentleman) was not one of the number that did personally accompany him in this voyage, yet the reading of the following letter sent by him to Sir Henry Wotton, the morning before he left England, may testify he wanted not his friend's best wishes to attend him.

LETTER

“ into England, that of the lyon expressing true fortitude having been my dicton before : But I “ am not ashamed of this addition; for King Solomon was a figure of Christ, in that, that "he was a King of Peace. The greatest gist that our Saviour gave his apostles immediately * before his afcenfion was, that he left his peace with them, he himself having prayed for his “persecutors and forgiven his own death, as the proverb is.” (King James's Works, p. 590.)

: In 1604.

LETTER

SIR,

AFTER those reverend papers, whose foul is
Our good and great King's lov'd hand and fear'd name:
By which to you he derives much of his,
And how he may makes you almost the same;

A taper of his torch ; a copy writ
From his original, and a fair beam
Of the fame warm and dazzling sun, though it
Must in another sphere his virtue stream:

After those learned papers which your hand
Hath stored with notes of use and pleasure too ;
From which rich treasury you may command
Fit matter whether you will write or do.

After those loving papers which friends send
With glad grief to your seaward steps farewel,
And thicken on you now, as prayers ascend
To heaven on troops at a good man's pafling-bello:

Admit this honeft paper; and allow
It such an audience as yourself would ask ;
What you would say at Venice, this says now,
And has for nature what you have for talk.

To swear much love ; nor to be chang'd before
Honour alone will to your fortune fit;
Nor shall I then honour your fortune more,
Than I have done your honour-wanting-wit.

But

The foul-bell was tolled before the departure of a person out of life, as a signal for good men to offer up their prayers for the dying. Hence the abuse commenced of praying for the dead.

“ Aliquo moriente campanæ debent pulsari, ut populus hoc audiens oret pro illo.” (Durandi Rationale.)

But 'tis an easier load (though both oppress)

To want, than govern greatness; for we are.
In that our own and only business;

In this, we must for others' vices care

'Tis therefore well your fpirits now are plac'd

In their last furnace, in activity,
Which fits them : schools, and courts, and wars o'er-past

To touch and taste in any best degree..

For me! (if there be such a thing as I)

Fortune (if there be such a thing as fhe)
Finds that I bear so well her tyranny,

That she thinks nothing else fo fit for me".

But though she part us, to hear my oft prayers.

For your increase, God is as near me here :
And, to send you what I shall beg, his stairs

In length and ease are alike every where.

J. DONNE

Sir Henry Wotton was-received by the State of Venice with much honour and gladness, both for that he delivered his Ambassage most elegantly in the Italian language, and came also in such a juncture of time, as his master's friendship seemed useful for that republic. The time of his coming thither was about the year 1604. Leonardo Donato being then Duke, a wise and resolved man, and to all purposes such (Sir Henry Wotton would often say it) as the State of Venice could not then have wanted, there having been formerly in the time of Pope Clement VIII. some contests about the privileges of churchmen, and the power of the civil magistrate ; of which, for the information of common readers, I shall say a little, because it may give light to some passages that follow.. Аа

About

• The author of these lines was then struggling with poverty and domestic distress..

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About the year 1603, the republic of Venice made several injunctions against lay persons giving lands or goods to the church, without licence from the civil magistrate "; and in that inhibition, they expressed their reafons to be, “For that when any goods or land once came into the hands “ of the ecclefi.d?ics, it was not subject to alienation, by reason whereof “ (the lay people being at their death charitable even to excess) the clergy

grew every day more numerous, and pretended an exemption from all “public service and taxes, and from all secular judgment; so that the bur“ den grew thereby too heavy to be borne by the laity.”

Another occasion of difference was, that about this time complaints were justly made by the Venetians against two clergymen, the Abbot of Nervesa, and a Canon of Vicenza, for coin initting such sins, as I think not fit to name: Nor are these mentioned with an intent to fix a scandal upon any calling. For holiness is not tied to eccleliaitical orders, and Italy is observed to breed the most virtuous and most vicious men of any nation.These two having been long complained of at Rome, in the name of the State of Venice, and no satisfadion being given to the Venetians, they seized the persons of this abbot and canon, and committed them to prison.

The justice or injustice of such, or the like power then used by the Venetians, had formerly had some calm debates betwixt the former Pope Clement VIII. and that republic*: I say calm, for he did not excommunicate them; considering, as I conceive, that in the late council of Trent it was

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* They also made injun&tions " Against the unnecessary increase of new churches, convents, “ and other religious buildings within their dominions.”

* Clement VIII. the admirer of Mr. Richard Hooker's vast erudition was a munificent patron of learning, having promoted to the purple, Bellarmine, Baronius, and many other eminent scholars. Sir Henry Wotton in a letter to Lord Zouch, from Florence, July 25, 1592, gives us the following anecdote of this Pope. “The Pope (Clement VIII.) in this last general examina“tion of the clergy in St. John Lateran hath deposed four canonists of that church, the one for “having Plutarch's Lives' found on his table, the rest for failing in declining of nouns and “ verbs.” He has drawn his character in another letter to the fame nobleman, Florence, May 2,1594'; and in a letter from Florence, July 27, 1592, he declares, that Clement had “la

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at last (after many politic disturbances and delays, and endeavours to preserve the Pope's present power) in order to a general reformation of those many errors, which were in time crept into the church, declared by the council, “ That though discipline, and especial excommunication, be one “ of the chief sinews of church-government, and intended to keep men in “ obedience to it; for which end it was declared to be very profitable : Yet it was also declared, and advised to be used with great fobriety and

care; because experience had informed them, that when it was pro“nounced unadvisedly or rafhly, it became more contemned than feared'.” And, though this was the advice of that council' at the conclusion of it, which was not many years before this quarrel with the Venetians, yet this prudent patient Pore Clement dying, Pope Paul V. who succeeded him (though nor immediately yet in the same year), being a man of a much hotter temper, brought this difference with the Venetians to a much higher contention ; objecting those late acts of that State, to be a diminution of his just power, and limited a ime of twenty-four days for their revocation ; threatening, if he wet . t obeyed, to proceed to the excommunication of th: reproc. who stil ffered to fhew both reason and ancient custom to Warutio. But this Pope, contrary to his predecessor's moderation, required to shute obedience without disputes.

Thus i continued for about a year: the Pope still threatening excommunication, and the Venetians still answering him with fair speeches, and nu compliance; till at last the Pope's zcal to the Apostolic see did make him to excommunicate the Duke, the whole senate, and all their domini

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“ santita di Pio quarto, la prudentia di Gregorii KIII. et la severita di Sisto V.”--Leo XI. the immediate fucceffor of Clement VIII. died on the 29th day of his pontificate. Upon his death, Paul V. was advanced to the Papal dignity, in fieference to two learned Antagonists, Bellarmine and Baronius---a pontiff of a haughly, vincdictive, and violent spirit, who, as hath already been observed, diłgraced his character by an express approbation of the doctrine of SUAREZ the Jesuit, in defence of “ The Murder of Kings."

y.“ When it is denounced rasily for a small cause.” (History of the Council of Trent, transated by Sir Nathaniel Brent, p. 754.) But fee Father Courayer's remark on this paflage in his elcgant French version,

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