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his dear Harry; for so Gentilis used to call him: And though he was not able to do that, yet there was in Sir Henry such a propensity and connaturalness to the Italian language and those studies whereof Gentilis was a great master, that his friendship between them did daily increase, and proved daily advantageous to Sir Henry, for the improvement of him in several sciences, during his stay in the university:
From which place, before I shall invite the reader to follow him into a: foreign nation, though I must omit to mention divers persons that were then in Oxford, of memorable note for learning, and friends to Sir Henry Wotton, yet I must not omit the mention of a love that was there begun betwixt him and Dr. Donne", sometime Dean of St. Paul's, a man of whose abilities I shall forbear to say any thing; because he who is of this nation, and pretends to learning or ingenuity, and is ignorant of Dr. Donne, deserves not to know him. The friendship of these two I must not omit to mention, being such a friendship as was generously elemented; and as it was begun in their youth, and in an university, and there maintained by correspondent inclinations and studies, so it lasted till age and death forced a separation.
In Oxford he stayed till about two years after his father's death, at which time he was about the twenty-second year of his age: And having to his great wit added the ballast of learning and knowledge of the arts, he then laid aside his books, and betook himself to the useful library of travel, and a more general conversation with mankind;, employing the remaining part of his youth, his industry, and fortune, to adorn his mind, and to purchase the rich treafure of foreign knowledge: Of which, both for the secrets of Nature, the dispositions of many nations, their several laws and languages, he was the possessor in a very large measure, as I shall faithfully
► In Dr. Donne's letters, published in 1657, are several addressed “To the best knight, Sir H. Wotton.” Dr. Donne has thus expressed his great regard for this his friend.
“ Whom free from German schismes, and lightnesse
(Donne's Poems, 1633. p. 63)
make to appear, before I take my pen from the following narration of his life.
In his travels, which was almost nine years before his return into England, he stayed but one year in France, and most of that in Geneva, where he became acquainted with Theodore Beza" (then very aged) and with Isaac Casaubon', in whose house if I be rightly informed) Sir Henry Wotton was lodged, and there contracted a most worthy friendship with that man of rare learning and ingenuity.
. Or rather, fix years. The writers of the Biographia Britannica explain the mistake by supposing that the tail of the 7 should be turned upwards to make it 6. It appears from a letter to Lord Zouch, dated July 10, 1592, that he had been abroad three years. He probably returned in 1595, as he was appointed Secretary to the Earl of Effex, after his return, in 1596, when he was in the 27th or 28th year of his age. In his letters to the above nobleman he has given an entertaining account of his travels, under the disguise of a Dutchman, and particuJarly of his journey to Rome, where he distinguished himself by wearing a large blue feather in a black hat. At Sienna he learned of Scipio Alberti the maxim which he recommended to Milton, “ I pensieri stretti et il viso sciolto."
• Theodore Beza died at Geneva, Oct. 13, 1605, aged 86 years. This learned foreigner encouraged the Puritans in England, and in 1566 wrote with much confidence to Bishop Grindal in their behalf. Yet however attached he might be to the discipline of his own church at Geneva, and he was very zealous for a Presbyterian government, and by no means so moderate as Calvin in that respect, it appears from several of his letters to Archbishop Whitgift, that he retained the highest regard and veneration for the Church of England. His Biographer, Melchior Adam, has given this character of him. -" Ingenio summo, judicio " accurato, memoriâ tenacissimâ, facundiâ singulari, affabilitate et comitate nulli fecundus, " adeo ut, propter, commemoratas dotes, adjunctâ illis vitæ longævitate (quæ tamen omnia " erant inferiora fummâ doctrinâ et pietate) quidam vocarent Bezam atatis fua Phænicem."
• “ Here I am placed to my very great contentment in the house of Mr. Ifaac Casaubon, a “ person of sober condition among the French, and this is all I can signifie of myself, my “ little affairs not allowing me much to speak of." (Letter to my Lord Zouch, Aug. 22, 1593, Geneva.)
This illustrious scholar, pronounced by Joseph Scaliger to be the best Grecian of his time, was born at Geneva in 1559. He read lectures on the Belles Lettres, first at his native place, and afterward at Paris. Henry IV. of France appointed him his Librarian, and in vain at
Three of the remaining eight years were spent in Germany, the other five in Italy (the stage on which God appointed he should act a great part of his life); where both in Rome', Venice, and Florence, he became acquainted with the most eminent men for learning, and all manner of arts; as Picture, Sculpture, Chymistry, Architeđure, and other manual arts, even arts of inferior nature; of all which he was a most dear lover, and a most excellent judge.
tempted to withdraw him from his profession of the refòrmed religion. After the untimely death of that Monarch, having obtained permission from the Queen Regent of France to leave the kingdom for a limited time, he came in October 1610, along with Sir Henry Wotton into England, where he was received by James I. with marks of peculiar kindness, rewarded with an annual pension of three hundred pounds, and with valuable church-preferment. He was esteemed not more for his learned works than for his singular affability and moderation. He approved Episcopacy. In his works he calls himself “Hortibonus,” a good garden: Casau, in the language of Dauphiné, signifying a garden, and bon good. It is well known that Ifaac Casaubon and Grotius, extremely anxious to form an union between the Popish and Protestant churches, had communicated their sentiments to each other upon this matter with
Morton, Bishop of Durham, caused a monument at his own expence to be erected to the memory of this learned man.
“ Qui nosse vult Casaubonum.
When Lord Herbert of Cherbury went to Paris in the earlier period of his life, he war, by the recommendation of the English Ambassador, received into the house of that incomparable scholar, Isaac Casaubon, by whose learned conversation he much benefited himself. (Life of Lord Herbert, printed at Strawberry Hill, p. 69.).
1 « The very feat and Gink of all corruption, to which,” as he writes in a letter to King James, “ my wandering curiosity carried me no less than four times in my younger years, “ where I fixed my studies most upon the historical part in the politic management of re“ligion ; which I found plainly converted from a rule of conscience to an instrument of state us " and from the mistress of all sciences into the very handmaid of Ambition."
He returned out of Italy into England about the thirtieth year of bis age, being then noted by many both for his person and comportment: For indeed he was of a choice shape, tall of stature, and of a most persuasive behaviour; which was so mixed with sweet discourse and civilities, as gained him much love from all persons with whom he entered into an acquaintance.
And whereas he was noted in his youth to have a sharp wit, and apt to jest; that, by time, travel, and conversation, was so polished, and made so useful, that his company seemed to be one of the delights of mankind; insomuch as Robert Earl of Essex8 (then one of the darlings of Fortune, and in greatest favour with Queen Elizabeth) invited him first into a friendThip, and, after a knowledge of his great abilities, to be one of his Secretaries, the other being Mr. Henry Cuffe", sometime of Merton College in
* See Sir Henry Wotton's “ Parallel betwixt Robert Earl of Effex and George Duke of Buckingham.” (Relig. Wotton, p. 161.)- This parallel was animadverted upon by Lord Clarendon.
The unfortunate Secretary of Robert Devereux, Earl of Effex. He is generally supposed to have advised those violent measures which ended in the destruction of his noble patron. His character as a scholar was established by the tract, “ De rebus gestis in sancto Concilio “ Nicoeno," a translation from Greek into Latin. He suffered for the same offence with his master. Sir Henry Wotton describes Cuffe as “ A man of secret ambitious ends of his own, :“ and of proportionate counsels, smothered under the habit of a scholar, and flubbered over " with a certain rude and clownish fashion that had the semblance of integrity.” (Relig. Wotton. p. 180.)—He is called by Camden, “ Vir exquifitifsimâ doctrinâ ingenioque acer“ rimo, fed turbido et tortuofo," Owen, the Epigrammatist, wrote the following lines upon him:
"Doctus eras Græcè, felixque tibi fuit Alpha,
In the beginning of his account of “The State of Christendom,” he pathetically laments his voluntary banishment. “That day should have been more joyful unto me than the day of
my birth and nativity, wherein i might have seen a letter from any of my friends with “ assurance of my pardon to call me home. But I find myself so much inferior to Coriola
nus in good fortune, as I come behind him in manly valour, and other laudable qualities.".
Τι και το στερεσθαι πατριδος ή κακον μεγα;
Oxford (and there also the acquaintance of Sir Henry Wotton in his youth); Mr. Cuffe being then a man of no common note in the university for his learning, nor after his removal from that place, for the great abilities of his mind, nor indeed for the fatalness of his end.
Sir Henry Wotton, being now taken into a serviceable friendship with the Earl of Essex, did personally attend his councils and employments in two voyages at sea against the Spaniards, and also in that (which was the Earl's last) into Ireland: That voyage wherein he then did so much
provoke the Queen to anger, and worse at his return into England; upon whose immoveable favour the Earl had built such sandy hopes, as encouraged him to those undertakings; which, with the help of a contrary faction, suddenly caused his commitment to the Tower.
Sir Henry Wotton observing this, though he was not of that faction (for the Earl's followers were also divided into their several interests) which encouraged the Earl to those undertakings which proved so fatal to him and divers of his confederation; yet knowing treason to be so comprehensive, as to take in even circumstances, and out of them to make such positive conclusions as fubtle statesmen shall project, either for their revenge or safety : Considering this, he thought prevention by absence out of England', a better security than to stay in it, and there plead his innocency in a prison. Therefore did he, so soon as the Earl was apprehended, very quickly, and as privately glide through Kent to Dover, without so much as looking toward his native and beloved Bocton; and was by the help of favourable winds and liberal payment of the mariners, within fixteen hours after his departure from London, fet upon the French fhore; where he heard shortly after, that the Earl was arraigned, condemned, and beheaded; and that his friend Mr. Cuffe was hanged, and divers other persons of eminent quality executed.
The times did not look so favourable upon Sir Henry Wotton, as to invite his return into England: Having therefore procured of Sir Edward Wotton, his elder brother, an assurance that his annuity should be paid him in Italy, thither he went ; happily renewing his intermitted friendship and interest, and indeed his great content in a new conversation with his old
· See the opposite page for the note bere referred to.