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examined and allowed by the archbishop, yet the Concourse of people of all sorts, both yesternight and this day morning, is so extreme, that both the streets, church and courts are thronged in such sort, that we cannot resort to the gate to speak with such as come to visit and with business, and whether we will or no, many, especially gentlemen and religious, enter in. This is all for the present. Thus I rest, this 26th of April, 1623. Lisbon, Vestræ Reverentiæ sevu in Christo.
(From First Impressions, or a Tour upon the Continent in the Summer of 1818,
by Mariane Baillie.) “ IMMEDIATELY beneath the dome, or capola, is a subterrapeous chapel, where sleeps the body of St, Carlo Borromeo, (the Howard of his age, and an ancient archbishop of Milan) enshrined in a coffin of the purest rock crystal, enclosed in a tomb of solid silver, splendidly embossed, and of epormous size and value. The pillars which support this chapel are alter, nately of silver, and of the most exquisite coloured marble, highly polished. The wax tapers, which were lighted by the guides, to enable us to tread the dark mạzes of this magnificent dungeon (for I can call it by no other name, debarred as it is from the sweet air, and light of heaven,) cast a stream of gloomy radiance upon our somewhat lengthened visages, and dimly il. luminated the buried treasures of the tomb. Never surely since the days of Aladdin, has there existed so imposing a scene of sepulchral wealth and grandeur. Having expressed a wish to see the saint, the priest, first putting on a sort of cloak of old point-lace, and crossing himself with au air of profound respect and reverenee, assisted by the guide, began to set some mechanical process at work, by means of which, as though by a stroke of magic, the silver tomb appeared to sink into the earth, the lid flew up as if to the roof of the chapel, and the body enclosed in its transparent coffin, was suddenly exhibited to our wondering gaze. It was habited in a long robe of cloth
of gold, fresh as if just from the loom; on the head was a mitre of solid gold, (presented by one of the former kings of Spain) and by the lifeless side, as if just released from the powerless hands, which were crossed upon its breast, lay a crosier of massy chased gold, studded with jewels of extraordinary richness and beauty, the price of which was scarcely to be reckoned, and whole magnitude and lustre were wonderful! They sparkled brightly in the rays of the taper, as if in mockery of the ghastly spectacle of mortality, which they were meant to honor and adorn."
MR. EDITOR--We will to day commence our walk by taking an external view of our metropolitan cathedral and its dependancies : and after a cursory examination, the interior of this stately building will claim our notice. It was first en. dowed as a christian temple, and dedicated to the honour of the everlasting God, and of St. Paul, doctor of the Gentiles, by Ethelbert, king of Kent. "Kings Athelstan, Edgar, Ca. mate, and Edward the confessor, were among its early benefactors. After the conquest, William, and even his worthless son Rufus, confirmed all the old grants and bestowed upon it many new ones. A bishop, with thirty major and twelve minor canons, besides thirty vicars, were originally attached to this church; in after times some alteration took place in the number and titles of these ecclesiastics. A vast area, sur. rounded by a wall with six gates encompassed the cathedral and many other religious edifices ; at the north-west corner stood the episcopal palace, contiguous to this, on the east, was a cemetery, denominated Pardon Church Haugh, where Gilbert Beckett, father to St. Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, erected a chapel in the reign of king Stephen, which was afterwards rebuilt by Thomas More, who established therein three cliaplains, in the reign of king Henry the fifth. On the north side of the church environing this ground were the great
cloisters, in which were buried many persons of considerable note; and Stow says, that their monuments in number and curious workmanship surpassed all others that were in the great church. About these cloisters was painted the Dance of Death, which was generally called the Dance of Paul's. The sacrilegious duke of Somerset ordered the whole of the cloisters, with all the tombs, monuments, &c. and the chapel to be demolished in the year 1549, and the materials removed to the Strand, to be employed in the erection of the costly palace which he was then building. The vacant spot was afterwards converted into a garden for the use of the minor canons. At the north door of St Paul's was a chapel founded by Walter Sherington for two, three, or four chaplains, endowed with forty pounds a year; this also was destroyed by the same Somerset, and a house was erected on the site. And on the north side of the church yard was an immense charnel-house, where the bones of the dead were collected in innumerable numbers ; over this charnel-house was a chapel erected to the honour of the blesse ed Virgin ; here were two brotherhoods, besides a regular chaplain, and many costly monuments adorned the surrounding spot; but the rapacious hand of Somerset seized upon them all, and upwards of 1000 cart loads of human bones, were de. posited on the moorish land in Finsbury fields. The belfry was near this chapel; it contained four bells, perhaps the largest in England; the lofty spire of this belfry was covered with lead, and upon the summit was placed a conspicuous statue of St. Paul. These, as I have already noticed, were won at a single cast of the dice from king Henry the eighth by sir Miles Partridge, who caused the bells to be broken as they hung, and the building to be taken down. This sir Miles was afterwards hanged on Tower-hill, on the 26th day of February, in the sixth of Edward the sixth, although generally supposed to be guiltless of the crimes laid to his charge. A handsome chapel of the Holy Ghost stood also on the north side of the church. It was founded in the year 1400 by Roger Holmes, chanceller and prebendary of St. Paul's, for seven chaplains, and was called Holmes' college. This also shared the fate of so many more in the reign of Edward the sixth ; and on the same side of the church sir John Poultney built a chapel
and here he was buried. Adjoining the bishop's pałace was a chantry with an altar dedicated to the Virgin Mary for one chantry priest, to say mass daily for the soul of Robert Braybrook, bishop. In front of the principal entrance was the cross, a pulpit of wood under a covering of lead ; from this cross the first preachers of the age were accustomed to deliver a weekly discourse to an almost innumerable audience assembled in the open air; at these sermons the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. were in the habit of attending. Here, also, were frequently seen the kings and queens of the realm; these sometimes in boisterous weather had a covering erected over them : how different are the practices of the present times !
Now let us commence a survey of the interior ; but so nụmerous were the beauties and attractions of this hallowed spot, that it is difficult on which object first to fix our attention, all things here denoted the pious purposes to which the edifice was consecrated. The shape of the building was a perfect cross, 630 feet in length, and 102 feet in height;, the steeple was 260 feet from the ground to the top of the stone work, and the spire towered above 279 feet more ; however the vast height of this could not be perceived from the interior. Many chapels and altars adorned the sides, and the shrines of several of our British saints were costly and of exquisite workmanship. The epitaphs upon the tombs of bishops, of warriors, of statesmen, and of several of our kings, all besought the passing reader, to offer up a prayer for the departed dead; and to prepare himself in time to meet an awful eternity. cestors did not, like our Protestant brethren, immediately canonize every defunct mortal, however frail his life had been. Northouck thus describes the scene before us : ments of this cathedral exceeded those of every other church in the kingdom.. The high altar stood between two columns, adorned with precious stones ; surrounded with a canopy of wood painted with the representation of angels. The new shrine of St. Erkenwald stood on the east side of the wall above the high altar, adorned with gold and silver, and precious stones : but not being thought sufficiently rich, in 1339 three goldsmiths of London were retained by the dean and chapter to work upon it a whole year, at the end of which, its lustre
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was so great that prelates and nobles, ambassadors and other foroigners of rank flocked from all parts to visit it, and offer their oblations before it. The picture of St. Paul finely paint. ed was placed in a wooden tabernacle on the right side of the high altar, and was esteemed a masterly performance. Against a pillar in the body of the church stood a beautiful image of the Virgin Mary; and that a lamp might be kept continually þarning before it, and an anthem sung every day. John Burhet, bishop of Bath and Wells, bequeathed a handsome estate. In the centre stood a large cross, and towards the north door a crucifix." Under the high altar was also a spacious chapel dedicated to the holy name of Jesus; here also was a fraternity or guild, to the honour of Jesus Chrsit, a full account of which may be seen in the grant of Henry the sixth. Adjoining to this was the subterraneous parish church of St. Faith, in which, among other monumental inscriptions, was one in remembrance of cardinal William West, canon of St. Paul's.
It is now, however, time to continue our route, and take a passing view of the Black Friars, a monastery rendered famous by the many parliaments there held, and among others that in which cardinal Wolsey was declared to have incurred a premua nire. It was here that the injured queen Catherine was cited to appear by the dissembling Henry. This convent was found. ed by Robert Kilwardry, archbishop of Canterbury, and the citizens of London, in the year 1276. King Edward the first, and Eleanor his queen, greatly coutribạted to the work. The church was spacious and richly ornamented ; and in it were entombed upward of fifty noble personages. The monastery was commodious and very extensive ; its revenues, however, were too inviting not to be noticed by the greedy head of the new church; they were consequently appropriated to his use, and the friars forced from their peaceful dwelling. Not far westward was situated the convent of White Friars, or brothers of the blessed Virgin of mount Carmel, which owed its foundation in 1241 to sir Richard Gray. Afterwards a plot of ground was bestowed upon it by king Edward the first, upon which the friars built their house, which was again rebuilt in 1950 by Hugh Courtney, earl of Devonshire, and enriched by Peter Sufkin, lord mayor. From thence we shall soon reach the lens