« НазадПродовжити »
apples and pears, and ride such pretty ponies, and play with these chil. dren?"
Then the man said, “If he prays willingly, and learns well and is good, then he may come into the garden, and Lippus and Jost too ; and if they all come, they shall have lifes and drums and singing and all sorts of stringed instruments, and dance and shoot with little cross-bows."
And he showed me an open meadow in the garden, arranged for dancing; and there were hanging up many golden fifes and drums and silver cross-bows.
But this was quite early, and the children had not dined; so that I could not wait to see the dancing. So I said to the man, “Ah, my dear sir; I will go at once and write all this to my dear litle son Hansehen, so that he shall pray constantly and learn well and be diligent, so that he also may come into the garden ; but he has an aunt Lehne, whom he must bring with him."
Then the man said, “It shall be so; go and write so to bim."
Therefore, dear little son Hanschen, learn and pray with good courage, and tell Lippus illid Just also, so that they may pray and learn also, and then you can all three be admitted into the garden.
And now you are commended to the Almighty God. And greet aunt Lehne, and give her a kiss for me.
LUTHER. As birds are born with the power of flying, horses with that of running, and beasts of prey with a furious courage, so is inan born with the peculiar faculty of thinking, and of mental activity.
Therefore do we ascribe to the soul a heavenly origin.
Defective and under-witted minds, mental abortions and monstrosities, are as rare as bodily deformities.
Not one individual can be found who can not by labor be brought to be good for something.
Any one who considers this will as soon as he has children devote the utmost care to them.
QUINTILIAN. The symptoms of children's inclinations are so slight and obscure, and the promises so uncertain and fallacious, that it is very hard to establish any solid judgment or conjecture upon them.
A tutor should have rather an elegant than a learned head, though both, if such a person can be found; but, however, manners and judgment should be preferred before reading.
'Tis the custom of schoolmasters to be eternally thundering in their pupils' ears, as they were pouring into a funnel. Now I would have a tutor to correct this crror, and that, at the very first outset, he should, according to the capacity he has to deal with, put it to the test, permitting his pupil himself to taste and relish things, and of himself to choose and discern them, sometimes opening the way to him, and sometimes making him break the ice himself.
Socrates, and since him, Arcesilaus, made first their scholars speak, and then spoke to them.
'Tis the effect of a strong and well-tempered mind to know how to condescend to his pupil's puerile notions and to govern and direct them.
Let the master not only examine him about the bare words of his lesson, but also as to the sense and meaning of them, and let him judge of the profit he has made, not by the testimony of his memory, but by that of his understanding.
Let him make him put what he hath learned into a hundred several forms, and accommodate it to so many several subjects, to see if he yet rightly comprehend it, and has made it his own. "Tis a sign of crudity and indigestion, to throw up what we have eaten in the same condition it
Wis swallowed down ; the stomach has not performed its office, unless it hath altered the form and condition of what was committed to it to concoct.
Our minds work only upon trust, being bound and compelled to follow the appetite of another's fancy; enslaved and captive under the authority of another's instruction, we have been so subjected to the trammel that we have no free nor natural pace of our own.
Let the tutor make his pupil examine and thoroughly sift everything he reads, and lodge nothing in his head upon simple authority and upon trust.
Bees cull their several sweets from this flower and that blossom, here and there where they find them, but themselves after make the honey, which is all and purely their own, and no longer thyme and marjoram.
So the several fragments the pupil borrows from others he will transform and blend together to compile a work that shall be absolutely his Own.
To know by rote is no knowledge. .
Our pedagogues stick sentences full feathered in our memories, and there establish them like oracles, of which the very letters and syllables tre the substance of the thing.
I could wish to know whether a dancing-master could have taught us to cut capers by only seeing them do it as these men pretend to inform our understandings, without ever setting them to work, and to make us judge and speick well, without exercising us in judging and speaking.
'Tis the general opinion of all, that childron should not be brought up in their parents' lap. Their natural affection is apt to make the most discreet of them over-fond.
It is not cnough to fortify a child's soul, you are also to make his sinews strong; for the soul will be oppressed, if not assisted by the body.
A boy must be broken in by the pain and hardship of severe exercise, to enable him to the pain and hardship of dislocations, colics, and cauteries.
Let conscience and virtue be eminently manifested in the pupil's speech. Make him understand that to acknowledge the error he shall discover in his own argument, though only found out by himsell, is an effect of judymint and sincerity, which are the principal things he is to seek aster, and that obstinacy and contention are common qualities, most appearing in and best becoming a mean soul.
Let him examine every man's talent; and something will be picked out of their discourse, whereof some use may be made at one time or another. By observing the graces and manners of all he sees, he will create to himself an emulation of the good, and a contempt of the bad.
Let an honest curiosity be planted in him to enquire after every thing, and whatever there is of rare and singular near the place where he shall reside, let him go and see it.
Methinks the first doctrine with which one should season his understanding, ought to be that which regulates his manners and his sense; that teaches him to know himself, and how both well to die and well to live.
How many have I seen in my time, totally brutified by an immoderate thirst after knowledge!
Our very exercises and recreations, running, wrestling, music, dancing, hunting, riding, and fencing, will prove to be a good part of our study.
I would have the outward behavior and mnien, and the disposition of the limbs, formed at the same time with the mind.
It is not a soul, it is not a body, that we are training up; it is a man, and we ought no: to divide him into two parts; and, as Plato says, we are not to fashion one without the other, but make them draw together like two horses harnessed to a coach.
As to the rest, this method of education ought to be carried on with a firm gentleness, quite contrary to the practice of our pedants, who, instead of tempting and alluring children to letters, present nothing before them but rods and furules, horror and cruelty. Away with this violence! away with this compulsion! than which, I certainly believe nothing more dulls and degenerates a well-born nature.
If you would have a pupil fear shame and chastisement, do not harden him to them.
Some of our colleges are mere gaols, where imprisoned youths are taught to be debauched by being punished for it before they are so.
How much more decent would it be to see their classes strewed with leaves and flowers, than with bloody stumps of birch !
Were it lest to my ordering, I should paint the school with pictures of joy and gladness, Flora and the graces, as the philosopher Speusippus did his.
A man should not so much repeat his lesson as practice it; let him repeat it in his actions.
MONTAIGNE. Man is the product of his education.
At the moment when the human being first receives life and motion, he receives his first instruction.
It is from the mother that the child receives health or sickness.
Hunger pains hiin, and he feels the necessity of opening his lips and drawing his nourishment from the bosom of his nurse.
When a few months have passed, his looks become more decided and his limbs stronger ; and he becomes by little and little more capable of receiving impressions.
The senses of right, hearing, taste, feeling and smell, develop more and more.
All the objects of nature around him operate upon him, and impress ideas upon his memory.
All the different susceptibilities which agitate during this period, are his instructors.
HELVETIUS. It is easy to see how dangerous and injurious an unnatural education may be, by forestalling the systematical and appropriate course of nature, and to prevent such a bringing up as is shown by experience to be the only mode of attaining to a satisfactory standard of morality.
But a system of education, directed only to the purpose of making man independent, instead of laying heavy chains upon bim----Would not such a system lead towards true perfection, and thus towards securing the happiness of our race ?
FORSTER. I would put myself in the place of a father who has a son to educate.
My first care should be, to make him firm and strong in body; and also to strengthen his mind, according to the principles of the stoics.
It is easy to form the character of a young child in any way desired ; but extremely difficult to change a character once formed and established.
But since nothing is inore fit to accustom a child to be honorable, and reasonable, and to control his passions, than example and company, therefore I must take the utmost pains myself to furnish my son such an example and such company as I wish him to be formed by.
Mere association with a virtuous man will always have more influence upon the heart, than all possible moral precepts and rules. WEIKARD.
The domestic relations of man are the earliest, and most important, in nature.
Therefore art thou, parental home, the foundation of all the purely natural education of man.
Parental home, thou school of manners and of the State!
Childish virtue is the blessing of thy days of study, and the first training of thy powers to the enjoyinent of all the blessings of life.
Ile who varies from this natural order, and makes unnaturally specific sep.irate courses of education for politics, professions, anthority or serving, directs humanity aside from the enjoyment of the most natural blessings, into a rocky sea.
Do you not see, O mnen-do you not feel, sons of earth-how your higher classes are destroying their innate powers by their education ?
Dost thou not see, humanity, how their departure from the wise order of nature, brings emptiness and fatal curses upon them, and downward froin them upon their people ?
Dost thou not feel, 0 earth, how the hunian race departs from the true blessedness of its domestic relations, and betakes itself in all directions to barbarous and silly theatrical performances, to see their own wisdom mirrored, and to tickle their own vanity ?
PESTALOZZI. We recognize clearly enough such superiorities as ancient Greece and Rome posses: over us, in internal arrangements, manners and customs ; but there is no one who seeks to bring them into practice.'
It was the similarly powerful and universal education of body and mind, th.lt elevated those nations so high above us, notwithstanding that we bost of possessing the highest civilization.
We say over their words after them, but where are the deeds?
Our so-called gymnasia are now exactly as they long have been ; in a st:ite of what is taught in them about the Greeks and Romans, and which is a real satire on both.
But these people are no longer among the nations ; and those who cliuim descent froin these ancient heroes, are degenerate, and her beneath their courage and their power.
But is this good reason for neglecting what we admit to be valuable ?
And why do we imitate words, but not actions ? The Greeks and Romans were great in both ; but with them the words were the consequence of the deeds.
They had themselves heard the roaring of the ocean and the neighing of horses; they had themselves appeared in the rage of battle, as fellow soldiers, brave defenders of freedom.
It must have been easy for them to think strong and great thoughts. The education of their minds culminated in that of their bodies.
TETZNER. With speaking, children commence a new period of life. It takes the place of crying.
In what nature indicates as adapted to bodily development, children should have the utmost possible freedom ; as in running, jumping, &c.
Nothing should be yielded to ill-tempered crying
Neither however should the children be taught to make demands in a polite style.
Not everything which the child demands should be granted him. Otherwise his requirements would have no limits; no one but God himself could satisfy them.
Grown people should no more tyrannize over children, and thus intimidate them, than children should be permitted to command.
Children should not be reasoned with, as, Mr. Locke recommends ; for the understanding is the last of all the mental powers to develop.
If children understood reasonable considerations, they would not need to be educated.
And by speaking to them from an early period in terms which they do not understand, they become accustomed to be contented with mere words, to criticise everything that is said to them, to think themselves as wise as their teachers, to be disputations and obstinate, and to do what it is fancied they are doing on reasonable principles, merely out of gluttony or fear or vanity, which motives it is necessary to call into activity as auxiliaries.
Children should be permitted to be children.
By using a reversed order of teaching, we obtain only premature atul flavorless fruits, which soon perish; we shall have young doctors and se children. You can as casily bring a child to be four feet high, as to have judgment in his tenth year.
Yield to them with pleasure, and deny them with reluctance.
But when you deny them, let it not be in an unpleasant manner. And let no persistency induce you to withdraw your negative. In this particular there is no middle path.
Either nothing at all, or the niost absolute and unconditional obljener. should be required of children.
It is the very worst sort of education to let a child be waverir., brtverta his will and your own, and to be incessantly dixputing with kums, khush shall be master.
It is difficult and perhaps impossible to guard abildim orar. «rly against bad influences, even in the country.
The bodies of pupils should be exercised in all way. It a quat error to suppose that such a course interfere with mental trainin
The senses are the first powers to develop in a chill, and uit water. tion should therefore be first attended to.
Let them mcasure, count, weigh and compare.
Secing children may cultivate their senses to an eroa1 extext by exo. cising and playing in the dark. 'The sense of vision often erts, and lead to 956 basts, Children's plays should exercise not only thrir eso!, :: Fortra:
Wo to boys who have no longer any refert love 21.1 : bara destitute of respect and love for their parent. 2.152
Geographical instruction shoull begin at that is the 2018 or w**.74 residence.
The pupil should draw maps of the printatwastewah , n. maps are made, and what they represent.
In investigating natural laws, always begin with the rata 4: obvious phenomena.
Let the child learn what is appropriate fx hä; n, w. P odle what he ought to learn afterwank.
What it requires an appeal to a b itar. 91, ** .. had better not learn at all.
Out of books, we learn to takoi bat se do 18 oft*.44**.
The teacher should, with his papil, astfel *149 . . , , ., *** mit the latter to work with his own barv: * , 7p
, understand things better than explain:ng the
Edocating men for one partieulas on 12 m, n , %** ***, unsuccessful in any other, in case of 2
LO word The great secret of education is not to *T! 121, porno su *** **, exerrise shall serve as terreation, aut. Ses & SER
After the body and the state for "1 " ***, ** ** his understanding and his judgment