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The pupil should stand erect,-his heels near together,-toes turne eil out, and his eyes directed to the face of the person speaking to him.

FIGURE ONE represents the Book Monitor with a pile of books across his left arm, with the backs from him, and with the top of the page to the right hand.

FIGURE two represents the Book Monitor, with the right hand hands the book to the Pupil, who receives it in his right hand, with

Le back of the book to the left; and then passes it into the left hand, where it is held with the back upwards, and with the thumb ex tended at an angle of forty-five degrees with the edge of the book (as in figure 2,) until a further order is given.

Figure THREE-When the page is given out, the book is turned by the thumb on the side ; and, while held with both hands, is turned with the back downwards, with the thumbs meeting across the leaves, at a point judged to be nearest the place to be found. On opening the book, the left hand slides down to the bottom, and thence to the middle, where the thumb and little finger are made to press on the two opposite pages. If the Pupil should have thus lit upon the page sought for, he lets fall the right hand by the side, and his position is that of Fig. 3.

FIGURE FOUR-But, if he has opened short of the page required, the thumb of the right hand is to be placed near the upper corner of the page, as seen in Fig. 4; while the forefinger lists the leaves to bring into view the number of the page. If he finds that he has not raised enough, the forefinger and thumb hold those already raised, while the second finger lifts the leaves, and brings them within the grasp of the thumb and finger. When the page required is found, all the fingers are to be passed under the leaves, and the whole turned at once. Should the Pupil, on the contrary, have opened too far, and be obliged to turn back, he places the right thumb, in like manner, on the left-hand page, and the leaves are listed as before described.

FIGURE FIVE-Should the book be old, or so large as to be weari. some to hold, the right hand may sustain the left, as seen in Fig. 5.

FIGURE six and SEVEN-While reading, as the eye rises to the top of the right-hand page, the right hand is brought to the position seen in Fig. 4; and, with the forefinger under the leas, the hand is slid down to the lower corner, and retained there during the reading of this page, as seen in Fig. 6. This also is the position in which the book is to be held when about to be closed ; in doing which, the left hand, being carried up to the side, supports the book firmly and unmoved, while the right hand turns the part it supports over on the left thumb, as seen in Fig. 7. The thumb will then be drawn out from between the leaves, and placed on the cover; when the right hand will fall by the side, as seen in Fig. 2.

FIGURE EIGHT-But, if the reading has ended, the right hand retains the book, and the left hand falls by the side, as seen in Fig. 8. The book will now be in a position to be handed to the Book Monitor ; who receives it in his right hand, and places it on his left arm, with the back towards his body. The books are now in the most suitable situation for being passed to the shelves or drawers, where, without being crowded, they should be placed with uniformity and care.

In conclusion, it may be proper to remark, that however trivial these minute directions may appear to some minds, it will be found on experience, that books thus treated, may be made to last double the time that they will do, under the usual management in schools. Nor is the attainment of a correct and graceful mode of handling a book, the only benefit received by the pupil. The use of this manual is calculated to beget a love of order and propriety, and disposes him more readily to adopt the habit generally, of doing things in a methodical and systematic manner.

AN ACCOUNT OP INSTITUTIONS FOR MILITARY EDUCATION IN FRANCE, PRUSSIA, AUSTRIA, RUSSIA, SARDINIA, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, ENGLAND, AND

THE UNITED STATES.

IN A SERIES OF PAPERS PREPARED FOR
THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

EDITED BY HENRY BARNARD, LL.D.
PHILADELPHIA: J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO., 1862.

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CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION, ...

The Military Element in Education:.............
Schools and other Means of Instruction in the Science and Art of War in
ditferent countries, historically considered, . .........

I. FRANCE.
OUTLINE OF MILITARY SYSTEM, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

System of Military Instruction, .....::::::::::
System Polytechnic School at Paris, insind Engineers at Metz,

2. School of Application for Artillery and Engineers at Metz, .
3. Artillery and Engineer Regimental Schools,. ....
4. Special Military School at St. Cyr, ..
5, School of Application for the Statf at Paris. . ..
6. Junior Schools, Lyceums and Preparatory Schools,
7. Military Orphan School at La Fleche, · · · · · · · ·

8. School of Musketry, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . Remarks on French Military Education,

II. PRUSSIA.
OUTLINE OF MILITARY SYSTEM, ...

Iistorical view of the system of Military Education, : :
General outline of the System, · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Details of the system in operation, . .

1. Examinations; General and Professional, for a Commission, ..
II. Schools of Preparation for these Examinations, ..

1. The Cadet Houses, · · · · · · · · · . .
2. The Division Schools, . . .

3. The United Artillery and Engincers' School, ..... III. The War or Staff School at Berlin, . ........... IV. Supplementary Schools, .. .. ...

1. Orphan Houses at Ånnaburg, Potsdam, and Preizch, : : : :
2. Non-commissioned Officers' School at Potsdam, .....

3. Noble-School at Liegnitz, .............. Remarks on Prussian Military Education, ............

III. AUSTRIA.
OUTLINE OF MILITARY SYSTEM.
System of Military Education, . . . . . . . . .
I. The Military Academies, . . . . . ·

·
1. Wiener Neustadt Academy,. . . . . . . . . . . .
2. The Artillery Academy at Olmutz, . . . . . . . . .

3. The Engineers' Academy at Znaim, ... II. Higher Course for the Artillery and Engineers

1. Senior Department for Officers both of Artillery and Engi

neers at Znaim, ..

2. The War or Statt school at Vienna, :::::::::
III. The Cadet Institutions, . . .
IV. School Companies for Non-commissioned Officers, ....

1. Artillery School Companies, . . . . . . . . . .
2. Infantry School Companies,. . . . . . . . . . .
8. Flotilla School Companies, .......

The following works, issued separately, and under the general title of PAPERS FOR TEACHERS AND PARENTS, and devoted to a practical exposition of Methods of Teaching and School Management in different countries, are compiled, from " The American Journal of Education," edited by HENRY BARNARD, LL. D. I. AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE OF EDU.

CATION. By Professor William Russell, Rev. Dr. Hill, Rev. Dr. Huntington, Gideon F. Thayer, Rt. Rev. Bishop Burgess, and others. One

Volume, 404 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00.
II. OBJECT-TEACHING AND ORAL LESSONS ON SOCIAL SCIENCE AND Com.

MON THINGS, WITH VARIOUS ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLES AND
PRACTICE OF PRIMARY EDUCATIOx, AS ADOPTED IN THE MODEL AND
TRAINING SCHOOLS OF GREAT BRITAIN. One Volume, 434 pages,

Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00; in goat, $2.50.
III. GERMAN EXPERIENCE IN THE ORGANIZATION, INSTRUCTION, AND DISCI-

PLINE OF PUBLIO OR COMMON SCHOOLS; WITH TREATISES ON PEDA-
GOGY, DIDACTICS, AND METHODOLOGY, by Professor Raumer, Dr.
Diesterweg, Dr. Hentschel, Dr. Abbenrode, Dr. Dinter, and others,

One Volume, 482 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.50.
IV. EDUCATIONAL APHORISMS AND SUGGESTIONS ANCIENT AND MODERN WITH

AN INDEX. One Volume, 200 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $1.50. V. ENGLISH PEDAGOGY; or Treatises and Thoughts on Education, the School,

and the Teacher.' By Roger Ascham, Lord Bacon, Sir Henry Wotton, Job Milton, Samuel Hartlib. Sir William Petty, Jolin Locke, Thomas Fuller, William Shenstone, Thomas Gray, William Cowper, George

Crabbe, Herbert Spencer, and others. One Volume, 480 pages, $2.50. VI. PESTALOZZI AND PESTALOZZIANISM, with Sketches of the Educational

Views of other Swiss Educators. One Volume, 480 pages, Octavc,

bound in cloth, $2.50; (in goat, with Portrait, $3.00.) VII. GERMAN EDUCATIONAL REFORMERS-Sturm, Luther, Melancthon, Ratich,

Comenius, Basedow, Francke, Herder, and others. One Volume, 586

pages, Octavo, $3.00. VIII. FRENCH SCHOOLS AND PEDAGOGY ; the Organization and Instruction of

Public Schools, both for General and Special Education; and the Pedagogical Views of Abbe de Lasalle, Fenelon, Montaigne, Rousseau, Cousin, Guizot, Wilm, Marcel, and others. One Volume, 576 pages,

Octavo, bound in cloth, $3.00. IX. SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION IN NORTHERN EUROPE, viz., Holland, Belgium,

Hanover, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia. One Volume, 416

pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00. X. SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION IN GREECE AND ITALY; both Ancient and

Modern. One Volume, 416 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00. XI. SECONDARY EDUCATION; or Subjects and Methods of Instruction in Gym

nasia, Lycees, Grammar Schools, Academies, and High Schools for Boys, with Account, &c., of the Home and School Training of Girls, in dif

ferent countries. One Volume, 540 pages, Octavo, $3.00. XII. SUPERIOR EDUCATION-AN HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVER

SITY, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSI

TIES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. One Volume, 520 pages, $3.00.
XIII. NORMAL SCHOOLS, AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS, AGENCIES AND MEANS FOR

THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHERS IN
DIFFERENT COUNTRIES, with a List of the best works on the History,
Biography, Principles and Methods of Education in the French, Ger.

man and English Languages. One Volume, 608 pages, $3.00. TERMS.—Any one of the Volumes will be sold separately at the price affixed. Orders will be received for the series, bound in cloth, as far as published, viz., I. II., III., IV., V., VI., VII., at $1.75 per volume, payable on delivery.

JUNE 1, 1863.

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