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Portrait or Francis Wayland I

I. What Is Education 7 Defined—Value of Axioms 7

Greek and Human Authorities 8

Pylhagorns—IMnlu—Aristotle—Aristophune*—Seneca—Horace, 8

German Authorities 9

Schmidt—Braun, 9

Kant— Richter—Spurzbeiin, 11

French Authorities, 12

Rousseau—Marcel—Fellenberg, 12

Scotch Authorities, 13

D. Stewart—T. Brown—J. Hiiii|*mmi, Sir W. Hamilton—T. Cnrlyle, 13

American Authorities, 14

A. Potter—D. Webster—D. Page, 14

W. E. Channing—F. Wayland, 15

W. C. Woodbridge—H. Mann 16

II. National Institutions For Military Education, 17

United States Military Academy At West Point 17

1. IIistorical Development 17

9. Studies and Results 35

Conditions and Forms of Admission, 47

III. Capt. Aldkn Partridge,.,.>w- 49

Portrait, ^ 49

Memoir, 49

Labor* in helm If of Militnry Schools and Education, 51

IV. State And Individual Institutions For Military Education f«5

Literary, Scientific, And Military Academy At Norwich, Vt., 65

Origin—Prospectus ami Results, 67

Norwich University, 67

V. Benefactor* Of American Education, 73

Caroline Plummer, 73

Memoir 73

Educational Benefactions, 75

Plummer Farm School in Salem, 76

Plummer Professorship of Christian Morals in Harvard College, 77

Plummer Hall in Snlem 78

VI. Suggestions On Early Mental Training 79

Bushnell 79

Quint ilmn—Plutarch—Seneca—Luther—Pythagoras HI

Luther—Comenius—Moscherosch—Montaigne—Hetvetius—Fnrster—Weikard 87

Pestalozzt—Tetzner—Rousseau, 89

Zsehokke—Stoy—Goethe—Schroder—Rotteck—Michnelis, 91

Land or—Isaac Taylor—Daniel Webster 92


VII. Plays, Pastimes, And Holidays or Children, 93

The Uses of the play slate of Childhood, 03

Family, Civil and Religious Festivals, 94

Home mill Evening Pastimes, 93

Restrict inns necessary fur mental mid spirituol growth, 98

The Rule as to Sunday Observance, 1011

VIII. Studies, lt>3

Essay hy Lord llacon, 1(13

Annotations on, by Archbishop Wliately, 104

A little learning not to be contemned, 104

What is a '* Smattering of Knowledge," 107

How to study, es|ieciiilly the Scriptures, 1QH

Deference due to the opinions of well informed nien, JII

Analysis, Contents, Index, Notes of books read, 112

Action of different studies on the mind, IM

The pleasure grounds of knowledge, I'JI

IX. American Pedaodoy 183

Introduction, 193

X. Educational Views Ok Horace Mann, 195 ^

Special Preparation A Prerequisite To Teachino, 125

XI. American Text-hooks, Teachers And Schools As Thev Were, 141

1. MmnmIn for the Alphabet, Spelling and Rending 141

The New England Primer, 141

A Sure Guide for the Child and Youth 149

The New England Primer Enlarged, 145

'* Improved 14(i

The Catechism 147

Schools as they Were 151

Letter from Noah Webster, 151

""Dr. Darlingt,^ West Chester, Penn., 159

""President Humphrey, 153

XII. Subjects Anu Methods Of Instruction For Primary Schools, 155

Young's Infant School Tkacher's Manual, 155

Necessity and Nature of the Infant and Primary School 155

Moral Education 15H

Intellectual Education, 103

Physical Education, I*'9

Qualifications of tlte Teacher I6D

School Rules—Sanitary Regulations—Time Tables 171

Developing lessons—or the Training of the Perceptive Faculties I7t>

Form—Lines—Solids lM

Color—Size—Number—Weight—Sound • •■ '94

Specimen Lessons on Real Objects, *95

Moral Lessons, llw

XIII. National Education, a05

Organization Of Elementary Schools In Ireland 205

School Organizers-their duties, and Teachers' Institutes 905

School Organization a0B


Tripartite System ^

Bipartite System **

Modified Monitorial System 2lJ

Specimens of Time Tables, 2JS

Syllabus of lectures on Methods of Instruction, 313

XIV. School Architecture 9I5

Haven Public School. Chicago 215

Illustrations 2I6

Clay Public School, St. Louis 219

XV. Educational Intelligence And Miscellany, 29'

XVI. Notice Of Books 223

XVII. Books And Pamphlets Received, 294


Aphorisms representing a knowledge broken, do invite men to inquire farther; whereas methods carrying the show of a total, do secure men, as if they were at farthest. Bacon.

Exclusively of the abstract science, the largest and worthiest portion of our knowledge consists of Aphorisms: and the greatest and best of men is but an Aphorism.

There is one way of giving freshness and importance to the most com ■non-place maxims—that of reflecting on them in direct reference to our own state and conduct, to our own past and future being.

S. T. Coleridge.

Mature and sedate wisdom has been fond of summing up the results of its experience in weighty sentences. Solomon did so: the wise men of India and Greece did so: Bacon did so: Goethe in his old age took delight in doing so ... . They who can not weave an uniform web, may at* least produce a piece of patchwork; which may be useful, and not without a charm of its own. The very sharpness and abruptness with which truths must be asserted, when they arc to stand singly, is not ill-fitted to startle and rouse sluggish and drowsy minds.

Guesses at Truth.

A collection of good sentences resembles a string of pearls.

Chinese saying.

Nor do Apophthegms only serve for ornament and delight, but also for action and civil use: as being the edge-tools of speech, which cut and penetrate the knots of business and affairs.—Bacon.

How often one finds in life, that an idea, which one may have met in youth, made visible in words, but also veiled in them, and which in this shape has haunted one with a vague sense of something divine, but dim and inscrutable, becomes, at the call of conscience, or when real events and beings give it its fit body, the open aspect of a messenger from Heaven, and the familiar friend of all one's after days. Sterling.

Abstracts, abridgments, summaries, &<•., have the same use with burning glasses, to collect the diffused rays of wit and learning in authors, and make them point with warmth and quickness upon the reader's imagination. SwUT.

Harmony, the ultimate object of all things, should exist as in the universe, so in man also, who is a little world in himself.

It is to this end especially that education should be directed; which requires:

1. That youth should not hear of any thing which may awaken unchaste desires, until they are acquainted with the dignity and loftiness of human nature.

2. That youth should endeavor to attain a ripe development, by means of effort.

3. That parents are the proper educators; and that it is therefore the greatest injustice to separate parents and children.

4. That education should extend over the whole period of youth.


Man becomes what he is, principally by education; which pertains to the whole of life.

Education must begin even before birth, with the parents themselves; must constitute a rule of action during the entire life, and in a certain sense must exist during the whole of it

A good education consists in giving to the body and the soul all the perfection of which they are susceptible. Plato.

Man becomes what he is, by nature, habit, instruction.

The last two, together, constitute education, and must always accompany each other; the former, however, preceding.

It can improve nature, but not completely change it

The intellect is perfected, not by knowledge but by activity.

The arts and sciences are powers, but every power exists only for the sake of action; the end of philosophy is not knowledge, but the energy conversant about knowledge. Aristotle.

The regimen that will insure
A healthful body and a vigorous mind,
A countenance serene, expanded chest,
Heroic stature and a temperate tongue.

So were trained the heroes, who imbued

The field of Marathon with hostile blood.
This discipline it was that braced their nerves,
And fitted them for conquest

Aristophanes. The Clouds.

There is no living being whose nature is so obstinate and cross-grained as that of man; who has a natural tendency towards what is forbidden and dangerous, and does not willingly allow himself to be influenced.

But these sinful natural tendencies can be improved by wise laws, by a mild and just administration of them, and by an education which unites firmness and love. Seneca.

Education awakes the innate power of the mind, and high cultivation confirms it Horace.

The specific signification of Education has often been defined by means of the distinction between educere and educare. But this is not a sufficient basis for a precise definition. E. M. Arndt, in his "Fragment* on Human Culture,"* considers educare to signify the artistic process or art of education, and thinks that edueere is more correctly translated by "to bring up," or "raise up;" Tpiipsiv. Schmidt in one place considers edueere to be the business of the mother, because she brings forth the child.t In another place, he says it means "to bring out of the family, into a larger sphere of life—into the world ;"t and in a third, that it means "to awaken, set in activity and develop the inner higher faculties."§ Educare is in the latter place taken to mean, on the contrary, "to bring the boy out of his annualized state of existence; to change the animal man into the spiritual."

Let us now consider whether German etymology may not furnish a more definite answer. Zielien\ means to remove any thing from one place to another, in such a way that the thing moved follows the power, and does it, also, in a steady manner, in contradistinction to throwing, striking, or carrying; and the thing moved is in a certain sense forced to go itself, even though it struggles not to do so. This radical word has gained a metaphorical meaning in the department discussed by this work, by its relation in meaning to the sense in which it is used to signify the gardener's production of flowers from a bulb. Thus Ziehen describes the management of his assistants by a teacher; of his orchestra by a leader, (though the compound heranziehen is more precisely proper); and in these cases the meaning is still very nearly the same with that of the original word, for there is a drawing after himself by the leader, without however any reference to the means by which the influence is exerted. But when Ziehen is used to denote the sort of training that is acquired by a wild young man who is sent to be a soldier, the most prominent idea is that of the means used; the strenuous discipline; and the design is not that he shall follow after his discipliner in any sense, but that by means of his receiving the action here denoted by zielten, that is by means of the passivity into which the constraint of his discipline brings him, he shall learn a right passivity, which is the negation of his previous wrong activity; namely, by means of an obedience to persons, authorities, orders; which obedience is the negation of his own undisciplined self-will. Aufziehen has a definite pedagogical meaning. It is the continuation of that careful protection from dangers to life, which is given to young infants; and therefore the physical care of the child, up to the period when it can take care of itself; a duty which can after the death of the mother be performed, for instance, by a maid. Here

'"Fragments liber Menschenbildung."

'" Outline,'' Ac. p. 40. "The child is brought forth into the light of day ; educitu; , as the proverb says, educit ubetetrix, edueat nutrix, instituit pnedagogus, docel mttgiater."

t lb., p. 281. § lb., p. 223.

1 Ziehen corresponds Terjr nearly to the Latin root word of "educate," »i»., dueo, to lead draw, .v r

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