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are to do so when the new ones, building, are ready. They begin
1. Military Drawing and the Study of Ground and Positions.
1. Military Drawing, and the Study of Ground and Positions.
most instructive campaigns.
6. Riding. The students are occupied at the school about eight hours daily. and their chief work is military drawing and topography. We went into the room where the students of both years were working together at drawings and plans under an artillery officer, said to be one of the best draughtsmen in the army. Some of the plans were modeled in soap, the hachures being marked very elaborately, so that the models and drawings might closely correspond. We also attended a lecture of the second class in military geography. A student traced out on the blackboard the line of the Western Alps, and was examined very closely on the smaller passes, the rivers, and the bases of operations for armies on both sides. The answers were very minute, and given with the greatest readiness; and we understood the question to be taken at random, and not to be a prepared one.*
'It may be desirable to give some specimens, taken from the official account of the school, of the questions put at the examinations for admission, I. Vita voce. 1. Mathematics :
Give an explanation of geometrical series, and a proof of the general formula.
nometrical functions of the different quadrants of the circle indicated 1 2. Geography :
What is meant by the backbone of Europe ? What states does it pars through ?
The source of the Elbe; its principal seeders ? 8. History:
Describe generally the wars of Charles V.
The political consequences of the Battle of Leipzig. 4. Arms and Munitions :
What is the material of sword blades? how are they made and proved ?
effects depend 1
The student officers attending the school are called upon to serve in those arms to which they do not belong. For this purpose they join the troops of the garrison of Vienna during June, July, August, and September, and if they belong to the infantry they go through all the exercises of the cavalry in one year, and of the artillery in another. If they belong to the cavalry, they go in the same manner through the exercises of infantry and artillery. After going through this practice, they have to take command of a battery, of a squadron of cavalry, and of a division of infantry.
The month of May is devoted in the first year to an expedition for practice in surveying the country, and in the second, for making reconnaissances, &c.
October is a vacation in the first year. In the second it is taken up with the final examination before leaving.
The officers acting as professors receive 600 florins, about 60l. annually besides their pay.
Immediately after the final examination, if there are any vacancies in the staff corps, the pupils receive appointments in order of merit, and are at the same time made captains. In proof of their receiving appointments on the earliest opportunity, we were told by Colonel Scudier that the last ten vacancies in the staff corps were filled up out of the twelve students who had just left the school.
5. Field and Permanent Fortification :
How is a trench made ?
lines? what parts protect the principal rampart ? what is the form of the Nanks?
and how is the main ditch made ?
What are the best arrangements for the successful defense of a fortress ? 6. Pioneer Service :
How are two beams of the same dimensions fastened together in the same direc
How are suspension bridges put up? 7. Rules for Drill and Exercise :
Wheeling during a march.
Forming of close battalion column. (6.) Cavalry.
Marching in files and fours.
Forming line from the flank to the front and rear. (c.) Artillery.
Intervals and distances in a battery. II. Paper Work. In Mathematics :1. Prove that in every triangle the square of the one side is equal to the sum of tho
squares of the two other sidles, less twice the product of these two, multiplied
by the cosine of the angle they inclose. 2 Il the hypothenuse is 33, and one angle 25° 48' 12", find the other angle and the
One of these was only a second lieutenant, and in order to make him a captain, (the rank required for the staff corps,) the Emperor promoted him to be a first lieutenant immediately, and to be a captain within three days afterwards. This double promotion was on the ground of great merit.
If an officer finds no vacancy in the staff corps ready for him, he must return to his regiment and wait as an attaché. But if a second lieutenant, he is entitled immediately to a step of rank, and if a licutenant, after three years' service he is made a captain, although he may not even then be attached to the staff corps.
There are to be eighty of these attachés to the staff. Their number at present amounts to only thirteen.
With regard to special aids-de-camp, generals are allowed to choose their own, without examination, but with this limitation, the officer chosen must not be a relation.*
* The following shows the nature of the Report presented by the examiners upon an Officer examined for admission. It is called the Prtifungs-Act, and is sent into the Supreme War Department, that is, to the Fourth Section.
Form No. I. gives the name, age, rank, and length of service of the Candidate (Lieut. R. H.) Form No. II.:-a Oral Examination. 1. Mathematics,
• Very good. 2. Geography,
• Very good. 3. History,
• Very good, knowledge thorough, statements logical. 4. Arms and Munitions,
Excellent; acquainted with the very details. 5. Field and Permanent Fortification, Both satisfactory. 6. Pioneer Service, - - - Very good. 7. Drill and Exercise Rules . Infantry,
. Very good.
Good. 8. Maneuvring,
Excellent. 9. French, - - - - Translates without difficulty from French into Ger
man, and German into French. Not much prac
tice in speaking. 10. National langunges, • • Speaks good Bohemian. b. Paper Work
1. Mathematics, - - - &c. &c. C. Accomplishments
Military Drawing. REMARKS.-Lieutenant R. H. is a pupil of the Neustadt Academy, of much natural talent, and quick apprehension. His way of expressing himself is quick and logical and shows a clear head. He has a fair military bearing, and prepossessing appearance. He gives every hope of proving a useful Officer of the Staff, and deserves admission into the War School. Form No. III. gives the questions actually put, as in the note on the preceding page.
(Signed) . . .
V. THE STATE AND EDUCATION.
What Lycurgus thought most conducive to the virtue and happiness of a city, was principle interwoven with the manners and breeding of the people. This would remain immovable, as resting on inclination, and be the strongest and most lasting tie ; and the habits which education produced in the youth, would answer in each, the purpose of a lawgiver. For he resolved the whole business of legislation into the bringing up of youth-which he looked upon as the loftiest and most glorious work of a lawgiver, and he began with it at the very source. PLUTARCH.
You (Athenians] will confer the greatest benefit on your city, not by raising the roofs, but by exalting the souls of your fellow-citizens; for it is better that great souls should live in small habitations, than the abject slaves should burrow in great houses.
That the education of youth ought to form the principal part of the legislator's attention, can not be a doubt, since education first molds, and afterwards sustains the various modes of government. The better and more perfect the systems of education, the better and more perfect the plan of government it is intended to introduce and uphold. In this important object, fellow-citizens are all equally and deeply concerned; and as they are all united in one common work for one common purpose, their education ought to be regulated by the general consent, and not abandoned to the blind decision of chance, or to idle caprice.
ARISTOTLE. What, under heaven, can there be more worthy of our most strenuous attention, than knowledge ; what more worthy of our highest admiration? Is calmness or serenity of mind the object of our wishes? What so likely to secure it as the pursuit of that knowledge which enables us to enjoy life in the happiest manner? Or do we esteem above all things unsullied integrity and spotless virtue? Either the study and acquisition of wisdom point out the path, or there is none, to the attainment of these distinctions.
By learning, the sons of the common people become public ministers; without learning, the sons of public ministers become mingled with the mass of the people.
I promised God, that I would look upon every Prussian peasant child as a being who could complain of me before God, if I did not provide for him the best education, as a man and a Christian, which it was possible for me to provide.
Education makes the man; that alone is the parent of every virtue ; it is the most sacred, the most useful, and, at the same time, the most neglected thing in every country.
MONTESQUIEU. It is not for the sake of a parish only, nor for the mere local interests, that the law wills that every native of France shall acquire the knowledge necessary to social and civilized life, without which human intelligenco sinks into stupidity, and often into brutality. It is for the sake of the state also, and for the interests of the public at large. It is because liberty can never be certain and complete, unless among a people sufficiently enlightened to listen on every emergency to the voice of reason.
Universal education is henceforth one of the guarantees of liberty, and social stability. As every principle in our Government is founded on justice and reason, to diffuse education among the people, to develop their understandings, and enlighten their minds, is to strengthen our constitutional government, and secure its stability. M. Guizot.
The education required for the people is that which will give them the full command of every faculty, both of mind and of body; which will call into play their powers of observation and reflection; which will make thinking and reasonable beings of the mere creatures of impulsc, prejudice and passion; that which in a moral sense will give them objects of pursuits and habits of conduct favorable to their own happiness, and to that of the community of which they will form a part; which, by multiplying the means of rational and intellectual enjoyment, will diminish the temptations of vice and sensuality; which, in the social relations of life, and as connected with objects of legislation, will teach them the identity of the individual with the general interest; that which, in the physical sciences—especially those of chemistry and mechanics—will make them masters of the secrets of nature, and give them powers which even now tend to elevate the moderns to a higher rank than that of the demi-gods of antiquity. All this, and more, should be embraced in that scheme of education which would be worthy of a statesman to give, or of a great nation to receive; and the time is near at hand, when the attainment of an object, thus comprehensive in its character, and leading to results, the practical benefits of which it is impossible for even the im. agination to exaggerate, will not be considered an Utopian scheme.
E. H. Hickson. “Westminster Review."
Did I know the name of the legislator, who first conceived and suggested the idea of common schools, I should pay to his memory the highest tribute of reverence and regard. I should feel for him a much higher veneration and respect, than I do for Lycurgus and Solon, the celebrated lawgivers of Sparta and Athens. I should revere him as the greatest benefactor of the human race; because he has been the author of a provision, which, if it should be adopted in every country, would produce a happier and more important influence on the human character, than any institution which the wisdom of man has devised.