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AMERICAN LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC, AND MILITARY ACADEMY.
At NORWICH, VERMONT.
Ths American Literary, Scientific, And Military Academy, at Norwicli, Vermont, was opened on the 4th of September, 1820, by Capt. Alden Partridge, and continued under his personal superintendence and instruction, assisted by several professors, until April 1st, 1825, when it was discontinued at Norwich, and reopened at Middlctown, Connecticut. The catuloguo of tho officors and cadets published August, 1821, conttiins a prospectus from which we make extracts to exhibit the aims of that school and of this particular class of institutions at that date.
TERMS OF ADMISSION.
The requisite qualifications for becoming members of the Institution are the following, viz: That the candidate be of good moral character, that he be able to read and spell correctly, to write a fair, legible hand, and work tho ground rules of arithmetic.
COURSE OP INSTRUCTION.
Young gentlemen destined for a college education, can bo prepared at this seminary for admission into any college or university in the country, cither as freshmen, or one or two years in advance, and in the mean time will be enabled to acquire a good military and practical scientific education. Young gentlemen also, destined for the navy, can here be instructed in the scientific part of their profession, and at the same time, obtain a correct knowledge of fortification, and of military operations generally, on hind, which it is believed they would find highly useful in future life. Parents and guardians who arc desirous of placing their sons or wards at this seminary, are requested to state whether they wish them to go through with the full course of education; and if not, to specify, particularly, those branches to whieh they desiro them to attend, and also to mention their ages.
The course of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, and English languages, Arithmetic, tho construction and use of Logarithms, Algebra, Geometry, Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Planometry, Stereometry, Mensuration or heights and distances by Trigonometry, and also Geometrically, practical Geometry generally, including particularly Surveying and Leveling, Conic Sections, the use of the Burometer, with its application to measuring the altitudes of mountains and other eminences, Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, the elements of Chemistry and Electricity, Optics, Astronomy, Navigation^ Geography, including the nsc of Maps and the Globes; Composition, Logic, History, Ethics, the elements of Natural and Political Law, the Law of Nations, Military Law, the Constitution of the United States, and of the states severally, Metaphysics; Agriculture, Permanent and Field Fortification, Field Engineering generally, the construction of Marine Batteries, Artillery duty, the principles of Gunnery, a complete course of Military Tactics, the attack and defense of fortified places, Castrametation. ancient fortification, the ancient modes of attacking and defending fortified
Slaces, the ancient Tactics, particularly those of the Greeks and Romans, with a i script°n m of the organization and discipline of tho phalanx and legion; BookKeeping, Music, Fencing, Military Drawing, Topography, Civil Engineering, including the construction of Roads, Canals, Locks, and Bridges; Architecture.
The Hebrew and French languages, Fencing and Music will not be considered as comprised in the regular course of education, and consequently those who attend to them will be charged separately.
MILITARY EXERCISE, AND DUTIES.
The students will l>e regularly and correctly instrnctod in the elementary school of the soldier, and also in those of the company und battalion; they will likewise be taught the regular formation of military parades, the turning off, mounting, und relieving guards and sentinels; the duties of officers of the guard, officers of the day, and adjutants; the making out correctly the different descriptions of military reports; iu tine, all the duties incident to the field or garrison. The military exercises and duties will he so arranged us not to occupy any of tha time that would otherwise be devoted to study; they will Imj attended to at those hours of the day which are generally passed by students in idleness, or devoted to useless amusements, for which they will be made a pleasing and healthful substitute. Practical scientific operatious will be frequently attended to, which will conduct! etpiallv to health and improvement.
The students will be required to sleep on matrasses, or straw-beds; no featherbeds will he allowed in the establishment.
For the purpose of giving to the students u military appearance, when engaged on military duty, and also on a principle of economy, they are required to wear a uniform*dress, a description of which is hereunto annexed. In prescribing a dress, it has been endeavored to combine as far as possible, cheapness and a neat military appearance, witli such a form as, while it leaves the student the free and unrestrained use of his limbs, will at the same time encumber him the least possible. The discipline will be strict, but correct; and particular attention will bo given to the full development and due cultivation of all those liberal, manly, noble and independent sentiments which ought to characterize every American, whether citizen or soldier. The strictest attention will be given to the health, manners and morals of the students. They will be continually under the personal inspection of the superintendent, who will bestow upon them all that care and attention which it is believed their parents, under similar circumstances, would bestow.
For the accommodation of gentlemen, (particularly of those holding commissions in the volunteer corps and militia.) who may not wish to go through with a regular course of military studies and instruction, and also for the purpose of diffusing military science more generally, (.'apt. Partridge will deliver annually at the before-mentioned seminary, three courses of public lectures; the first course to commence on the second Monday in May, the second course on the second Monday in July, and the third course on the first Monday in October, annually. These lectures will embrace the following branches of military science and instruction, viz.:—
1st. Permanent and field fortification, the construction of field works generally, and also of marine batteries.
2d. The attack and defense of fortified places.
3d. The use of artillery, with a general exposition of the principles of gunnery.
4th. Military Tactics.
Sth. Garrison and field service of troops, embracing' particularly their police and mlrs for turning off, mounting and relieving guards and sentinels, and also for guard duty, likewise castrametation.
6tn. General rules for the attack and defense of a province or country embracing all exposition of the principles of base linos of operation.
7th. Rules for the inspection and review of troops.
8th. A summary of ancient fortification, and also of the ancient modes of attacking and defending fortified places.
9th. A summary of the ancient tactics, particularly those of the Greeks and Romans.
10th. A description of some of the most celebrated battles and sieges, both of ancient and modem times, for the purpose of practically illustrating the principles explained in the lectures. In order to render the lectures on fortification perfectly intelligible, plans will be prepared, on which the several parts of a work will be clearly and distinctly exhibited*
Particular attention will he given to a full explanation of all the technical terms used in fortification, as well as in the other departments of military science. A full courso will comprise about twenty lectures; five to be delivered in each week until the course be finished. The terms for attending a course will be ten dollars. Gentlemen subscribing for two courses, will be allowed ever after to attend gratis. All those attending the lectures, will be entitled, during the time of such attendance, to practical military instruction, and also to the privilege of the reading-room, without any additional charge.
On the 1st of April, 18-25, Copt Partridge was induced by liberal overtures from citizens of Middlctowu, Conn., to leave his institution at Norwich, and remove to Middlctown, Conn., and reopen it in that city. Before doing so he published a card in which he exhibits the progress and results of his labors at Norwich.
This seminary was opened at Norwich, in the state of Vermont, on the 4th of September, 1K20, under my immediate direction uml superintendence; and although the plan was new and untried, besides containing principles, which were by many considered discordant with ouch other, viz., the connecting of mental improvement with u regular course of bodily exercise, and the full development of the physical powers, the whole conducted under a military system of discipline; still its success has exceeded, rather than fallen short, of my most sanguine expectations.
The following extract from a recent report of the adjutant of the institution, compiled from the rolls and other authentic document*, will enable the public to form their conclusions, from facts on this subject.
1st. The total number of cudct* who have joined the institution, since its organization, is 4H0.
2d. The numbers from the respective states, and other sections hereafter mentioned, are as follows, viz.:
8dly. Of the altove nmnlHir, twenty are commissioned and warrant officers of the if. S. Navy, viz., 4 lieutenant*, 1 ussistunt-surgcon, and 15 midshipmen.
4thly. Out of the whole, 441 have been engaged in the study of the Mathematics, and out of this number 145 havo completed a lull course of "Mutton's Mni.hrt/uUic*." Of these, 80 have, in addition, attended to practical Mathematics, 50 have continued their course through the stiulv of Philosophy, and others are now fast progressing in the accomplishment of those higher branches also.
5thly. The whole number who have studied the Greek uud,Latin languages, is iil« iiit 130, Of these, 25 have advanced far towards completing a course, although none have gone entirely through. Of those not included in the last-mentioned number, many have fitted for college, or progressed still farther, and many are progressing. What is here considered a course, is the same which is laid down in the prospectus, which could be scarcely completed in the period since the establishment of the institution.
8thly. The number of those who have attended to the French language, is about 130. Twenty have become well acquainted with the language—30 are very well advanced, and" many of the remainder have made respectable progress.
Tthly. About ten or twelve of those who have been, or are now members of the institution, havo devoted considerable time and instruction of U>c militia or volunteer corps, in this and various other sections of the country, and many of them are still engaged in that useful employment.
Of those who have been, or are now, engaged in the study of the Latin and Greek languages, I flatter myself there are several who would not suffer by a comparison with any of the same degree of advancement at our older and most approved seminaries; and as a school of practical science, I have little hesitation in asserting, that it is second to none in our country. In confirmation of this assertion, F would observe, that since the establishment of the seminary, my pupils, in addition to their usual exercises in practical geometry-, and many operations of minor consequence, have executed, in a very handsome manner, a profile of the country, exhibiting tho perpendicular altitudes of all tho prominent points, above tide water, as determined by act sal observation, from the summit of Manchester mountain, in the state of Vermont, to the summit of mount Washington, the highest elevation of the White Mountains, in the state of New Hampshire, a distance of 165 miles. They have also executed a similar profile from Norwich to Whitehall, in the state of New York, a distance of sixty-eight miles, and have further executed a trigonometrical survey of the country around Norwich, for a distance in sumo directions, of about twenty miles. This survey was commenced, and has been prosecuted, in such a manner as to serve as a basis for any further operations that may be thought nocossary. A handsome topographical plan of this survey is finished.
In the department of French, it is believed, the pupils have made us rapid progress as at any seminary in our country, and in Mineralogy, Botany, etc., although but recently commenced, there appears to be much zeal, and a corresponding improvement, amongst the classes which have attended, and those still attending, numbering about sixty.
Music and fencing have been attended by a large proportion of the members, and with a progress highly creditable to them.
The military exercises and duties are common to all the cadets, and it is believed very few have left the seminary, who were not competent to instruct from the elementary drill of the soldier, to embrace the school of the battalion, iind who, in addition, did not possess a very competent knowledge of the principles of the grand tactics, of the elements of permanent and field fortification, of the principles of gunnery, Ac. The beneficial effects of the regular system of exercise and active duty, to which my pupils are subject, upon their health, has been fully equal to my expectations. But one death lias happened at the institution, since its commencement; and this was a youth who had just entered his name on the rolls, but was attacked by a prevailing epidemic, of which he died, before commencing his studies or regular duties. Several wno joined the seminary feeble and debilitated, have in a short time been entirely restored to vigorous health. Indeed, such has been the result, I believe, without a single exception. That a youth may, by means of a regular system of exorcise, preserve all his bodily activity and vigor, and at the same time apply himself most assiduously to study, I have never had any doubts; but if I liaJ, the facts developed since the establishment of this seminary, would have dispelled them. Many of my pupils, and those the closest applicants to study, walk with facility forty miles per day. In the summer of 1823, several of them left Norwich at day-break in the morning, walked to the summit of Aseutney mountain, and returned to Norwich about i» o'clock in the evening of the same day—the whole distance fortysix miles: which, considering the fatigue and difficulty of ascending and descending the mountain, (upwards of 3,0*10 feet high,) may reasonably be estimated as equivalent to sixty miles on the usual mads of the country. They continued their regular studies and other duties the following day. In September, 1S23, a party ot nearly thirty accompanied me on a pedestrian tour to the summit of Manchester mountain, in the state of Vermont, a large portion of whom traveled ISO miles in four days, and on the fourth day one of the party, a youth of sixteen years of age, walked by my side forty-five miles. On a recent excursion to the summit of the most elevated of the White Mountains, with a party of fifty of my pupils, a large portion of them, on the last day, walked forty-two miles. Belonging to this party, was a youth of but twelve years of age, who walked the whole distance, (160 miles,) carrying his knapsack, with clothes, <fec., and returned in perfect health.
Since the latter part of June, 1821, the cadets, as a military corps, have executed, under my personal command, six military marches, amounting, in the aggregate, to 037 miles. Different detachments from the corps have also, within trie same time, in addition to several of minor importance, performed, under my personal direction, four pedestrian excursions, for practical scientific purposes, amounting in the aggregate to 8X4 miles, and which, added to the former, gives 637xti**=18'21 miles. To this may be added an excursion to the White Mountains, whole distance 170 miles, by a party which I did not accompany, and which will make the total distance traveled in those marches and excursions, 1491 miles.
The foregoing facts arc stated for the purpose of illustrating and confirming the correctness of the opinion I have so often advanced in my lectures on education, relative to the practicability, and oven facility, of combining the full development and perfection of the physical powers of youth, with a due cultivation and improvement of the mental faculties. Whether a young man, who enters on the grand theatorof octivo lifo, with a mind and body equally vigorous and improved, who, while he has a head to conceive, possesses idso an arm to execute, will or will not posscsB advantages in the discharge of the various duties he may be culled upon to perform, over one; who has grown to the age of manhood, puny and debilitated, destitute of physical energy, and incapable of bodily exertion, I shall leave to the sound discretion of the American people to decide.
As it respects the effect of the system on the morals of youth, I would observe, that I feel confident no one has left the institution worse than he joined it, and that I flatter myself, several have, in this respect, been improvou. Next after the inflnenoo of religion, I consider habits of industry and economy as constituttag the surest basis of morals amongst youth. To instill these into the minds of my pupils, ever has, and ever will be,.a leading object; and I consequently shall imperatively require the strictest adherence to all the regulations bearing on those points, by all concerned. I would therefore beg leave to assure the parents, guardians, and relatives of ray pupils, that the regulations prohibiting the cadets being furnished with money, otherwise than by the superintendent, or by his express permission, is to be taken in its literal meaning, (without exceptionj) and must be adhered to under all circumstances; and that any deviation from it will be followed by immediate dismission. 1 would much prefer that the great body of my pupils should enter young, and grow up under my system. The mind and body are then more susceptible of improvement, than at a more advanced period. Few, if any, vicious habits have then been formed, and the morals, under a strict and regular discipline, mny easily be preserved. It is my fixed determination not, knowinglv, to admit any young man of continued vicious or dinsipated habits into the Institution. I would accordingly recommend to parents and guardians not to send me any of this description; for if they should gain admission, and did not immediately reform, (which seldom occurs when the habits arc confirmed,) it would only eventuate in their dismission, and consequent disgrace. It is much easier to prevent a youth from acquiring bad habits, than to correct them after they arc acquired. It parents and guardians will send me their sons and wards free from habits of dissipation, immorality, and vice, I will guarantee, as far as human agency will authorize, that they shall ho preserved free from such habits, while they remain under my care. Kverv requisite means will be used to correct the foibles and faults incidental to youth—to accomplish this object no pains will be spared. With their foibles I will bear as much as any person, but with their vices I will make no compromise. For the purpose of enabling me the more readily und the more certainly to accomplish this important object, I must request parents and guardians, if their sons or wards nave foibles or faults, frankly to state them to me. On this subject there should be no reserve; as, with such information, I Bhould know much better what course to pursue with them.
The favorable view taken of the aims, progress, and results of tho scientific and military training provided by Capt Partridge in his Academy at Norwich, was amply justified by the success of his pupils at Middletown, as practical men in various departments of business and public life.
On account of the condition on which he held a portion of his property at Norwich, Capt. Partridge was obliged to maintain there a literary institution, after his removal to Middletown. When he discontinued his labors at the latter place, and not succeeding in his plans for establishing a scientific and military school in the neighborhood of New York, he returned to Norwich, and in 1832, made preparation to reestablish his Academy on its old basis, and with enlarged promises. With this view he erected the building known as the North Barracks, which were occupied for two years by Rev. Amasa Buck, for the purposes of a Methodist school, known as the Franklin Seminary.
In the spring of 1834, a number of gentlemen associated to establish at Norwich, not an academic, but a collegiate institution, after Capt. Partridge's views, and in the autumn of that year, obtained from the Legislature of Vermont, a charter by which the petitioners were constituted a Board of Trustees of an institution by the name of the Norwich University. The charter further provides "that the said Board shall bo required to furnish at said institution constantly a course of Military instruction, both theoretical and practical, and also in Civil Engineering, and the practical sciences generally; and the President of said institution, with the consent of the Trustees, slwM have power to give and confer till swh diplomas, degrees, honors, or licenses, as are usually given or con/erred in Colleges or Universities, at their discretion ; provided, however, that in so doing they shall have respect to the morals and merits of the candidate alone."