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to the chair of Philosophy in the New York University, but resigned before entering upon its duties, to accept the post of President of the University of Michigan. He visited Europe again in 1853, delivered the annual address before the State Agricultural Society of Michigan, and in 1854, received the degree of LL. D., from Columbia College. In 1856, he was elected a Corresponding Member of the Imperial Institute of France, also President of the American Association for the Advancement of Education, and delivered the annual address before that body at Albany. In the same year he issued a revised edition of the “Elements of Logic,” and in 1857, his three works on "The Will," were republished in one volume at Glasgow, being a new edition, revised, corrected, and with additions. In the same year he delivered an address on Public Education, before the legislature of Michigan. In 1858, he delivered an address before the Alumni of Union College on the occasion of laying the corner stone of Alumni Hall. He has also delivered numerous other lectures and addresses, has contributed various articles to the "American Biblical Repository," and other periodicals, and has written many pamphlets and reports on education.
The University of Michigan, owes its foundation to a grant of lands made by an Act of Congress to the Territory of Michigan in 1826, which appropriated two entire townships " for the use and support of a University, and for no other use or purpose whatever." On the admission of Michigan into the Union, these lands and other avails were declared by the constitution of 1835, to be a permanent fund for its support, and its affairs engaged the earnest attention of the State Legislature in 1836. An organization was recommended in 1837, in the report of Hon. John D. Pierce, the first Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the first law, passed by the legislature, establishing the “University of Michigan," was approved March 18th of that year. In this act the objects were stated to be “ to provide the inhabitants of the State with the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of literature, science, and the arts." A board of Regents was to be appointed by the governor of the State, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The governor, lieutenant governor, judges of the Supreme Court, and the chancellor of the State, were ex-officio members. Three departments were provided : of literature, science, and the arts; of law, and of medicine. Fifteen professorships were mapped out in the first of these; three in the second, and six in the third. The institution was to be presided over by a chancellor. An additional act located the University at Ann Arbor, on a site to be conveyed to the Regents free of cost, and to include not less than forty acres.
In the first organization of the University, “ Branches," as they were called, were established and located in eight of the principal towns of the State, which instead of being feeders for the central institution, as originally contemplated, exhausted the resources necessary to equip the University proper with professors, cabinets, and the material outfit for instruction, without which there were no inducements for students to resort to Ann Arbor. If the State had made sufficient provisions for these preparatory schools, it would have made but little difference what they were called, but as “Branches " they were considered entitled to support from the income of funds set apart for the university. In a few years this policy of “Branches " was abandoned, and the entire income of the uni. versity funds was devoted to its legitimate purposes of building up a State institution at Ann Arbor.
In the appointment of incumbents to the chairs of (1.) Ancient Languages; (2.) Moral and Mental Philosophy; (3.) the Philosophy of History; (4.) Mathematics including Natural Philosophy, an attempt was made to reconcile the claims of different denominations to a representation in the Faculty of Arts, by selecting a clergyman from the Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, and Episcopal churches, for these professorships, each of whom in turn was required to act as President for one year from the time of his accession to the office. The inconvenience of this arrangement for an administrative head, was felt from the start, but was increased by the establishment of the Medical Department in 1850. In 1852, on the reconstruction of the Board of Regents by the choice of the members by a vote of the people, this inconvenience was remedied by the appointment of Henry P. Tappan, LL. D., of the city of New York, as principal Executive Officer, or President.
In 1841, the Collegiate Department was organized, on the 20th of September, 1842, opened, and in 1843, consisted of four professors and fifty-three students. In 1850, the Medical Department was opened with three professors, and in 1852, there were 150 students. In 1853, when Dr. Tappan entered on the administration of the university, there were seven professors, including three in the Medical School, and the whole number of students of every name, was 222; and the number of graduates in the Faculty of Arts amounted to 110. His first step was to revise the course of study. This was done in a masterly manner; while the range of linguistic study, including both ancient and modern, was greatly enlarged, a scientific course was instituted, by which the educational wants of large classes of the community engaged in useful employments were provided for. The classical and scientific courses were parallel to each other in respectability, in the term of years required for completing them, in the attention they received from the university professors, and in the academical honors awarded at their close. Students who did not wish to become candidates for an academical degree, or who might wish to supply deficiences in particular branches before entering upon a full and regular course, were permitted to take a partial course. In addition to these courses, a university course proper was indicated, the development of which has been the aim of much of Dr. Tappan's subsequent labors. His inauguration as President was signalized by the establishment of an Observatory through the liberality of the citizens of Detroit, among whom may be specially designated, Henry N. Walker, Esq., who donated three thousand dollars towards the object. In 1858, a Gallery of Casts of Ancient Statues, Busts, and Vases, was commenced, which has since been extended so as to comprise a collection of Historical Medallions, and Engravings and Photographic Views, illustrative of Medieval and Modern History. These together constitute the Museum of the Fine Arts and History. In 1856, an Analytical Laboratory was opened, and in 1859, the Law Department was established with three professors and ninety students. In 1861, a Chair of Military Engineering and Tactics was instituted, with the design of developing a full course of military instruction. Every year some new chair of instruction was established, new material for experiment and illustration was added to the cabinets, and class-rooms, until at the close of the first ten years of his administration, Dr. Tappan and the State could rejoice in the development of the institution from very feeble beginnings into the fair proportions of a University.
By the Annual Catalogue for 1862, there were 270 Academical Students, and 345 Professional Students, or a total number of 615. In the same year the Degree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred on 37; of Bachelor of Science on 15; Bachelor of Law on 44; of Doctor of Medicine on 36; of Master of Arts on 18; of Master of Science on 5; and the Diploma of Civil Engineer on 4;-all educated in the University. In the same year there were 27 professors and other officers. The income of the university available for annual expenses had increased from $12,000 to $40,000.
The above statistics of growth and prosperity so far as we know, can not be surpassed in the same number of years in any collegiate institution of this country.
MILITARY SYSTEM AND EDUCATION IN SARDINIA.
1. GENERAL OUTLINE OF MILITARY SYSTEM, AND MILITARY EDUCATION.
The wars in which Sardinia has recently been engaged, have led to the re-organization of her armies, and to the extension and improvement of institutions for military instruction, but time enough has not yet elapsed to perfect the system.
One-third of the officers are promoted from the ranks; the remaining two-thirds, that is, all who enter as officers, must pass through the Royal Military Academy, and before being commissioned as Captain in the Artillery and Engineers, must have completed the special course in the Complementary School. Admission to the Royal Staff Corps is conditioned on attendance on the lectures of the Staff School, and the results of a competitive examination. The following is a brief outline of the system of military instruction now in operation.
1. The character of the education may be described generally as partly resembling that of Austria, partly that of France. It commences very early. Every Officer who enters the Army as such must have passed through the great Military School, the Accademia Militare. The minimum age of entrance is fourteen. The admission is by nomination and not by competition; and the demand has always been under rather than above the requirements of the Army. “Bourses" or Exhibitions to assist pupils in their education, have been established on the Prussian and Austrian, rather than on the French principle. They are granted by the King on the recommendation of the Minister, in consideration of the claims of deceased Officers, or other public servants, and without reference to the · merits of the pupils, preference being given to the candidates whose circumstances most require assistance. From twenty-five to thirty of these Bourses (or rather Demibourses, for no pupils receive entire support such as is given in France,) are given annually. We are informed that a decree will appear almost immediately, throwing open ten out of this number to public competition. The entire sum expended upon them is 70,000 francs, about 2,8001. per annum.
Passing from this outline of the principles of Sardinian Military Education, as exhibited in the Accademia Militare, which may be termed the General Seminary of the Sardinian Army, we shall briefly allude to the three remaining Institutions, in which Officers receive instruction and training at later periods of their career.
2. Admission into the Artillery and Engineer School may be considered the reward of the most distinguished pupils of the Accademia Militare, who after spending their last year in that Institution in the study of the higher mathematics, chemistry, and architectural drawing, are transferred for the completion of their education to the School of the Artillery and Engineers.
3. The Staff School, the formation of which dates from 1850, is chiefly frequented by Officers of the Infantry and Cavalry, who must be below the age of twenty-eight years upon their entrance. It is carried on upon the competitive system, the Officers being ranged according to merit in their Final Examination, the ablest entering the Staff Corps in that order.
4. Regimental Schools for Officers also exist, and in every Brigade or Division, Officers are taught topography, under the supervision of the Chief of the Staff of the Division. Care is taken to make this teaching uniform throughout the Army; and it may be regarded as preparatory to that of the Schools at Ivrea and Pinerol, which accord with the principle of the Prussian Division Schools in requiring that every Officer shall have received professional instruction; but as regards other points, and particularly the period for attending them, these Schools are peculiar to the Sardinian Army. In time of peace, no Officer, excepting those of the Special Arms, can obtain a Company without having studied for a year in one or the other of these Schools, and having passed an examination on leaving it. The Instruction given is mainly practical, Field Fortification, the Secondary Operations of War, and Topography, being the branches of Military Science taught.
These Institutions appear to have been primarily established with a view to the instruction of Officers and Non-commissioned Officers throughout the Army, and in order to prevent Regiments or Corps from following some peculiar system of their own. The same motive seems to have led to the gradual reduction in number of the Prussian Division Schools. Secondarily, however, these Schools have been made available for the purpose of organizing and drilling the reserve of the Sardinian Army, a large body of Conscripts assembled for a few weeks in the autumn of each year in a camp