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to us that this open competition produced a spirit of confidence and energy in the students, as great, if not greater, than any we met with elsewhere.

The whole of the above system of education is directed by the Fourth Section of the War Department. In all the schools we found traces of its activity; and the energy and system which prevail in the Military Teaching of Austria appear in great measure to result from its being directed by this single head.

The following works, issued separately, and under the general title of PAPERS FOR TEACHERS AND PARENTS, and devoted to a practical exposition of Methods of Teaching and School Management in different countries, are compiled, from "The American Journal of Education," edited by HENRY BARNARD, LL. D. I. AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE OF EDU.

CATION. By Professor William Russell, Rev. Dr. Hill, Rev. Dr. Huntington, Gideon F. Thayer, Rt. Rev. Bishop Burgess, and others. One

Volume, 404 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00.
II. OBJECT-TEACHING AND ORAL LESSONS ON SOCIAL SCIENCE AND Com-

MON THINGS, WITH VARIOUS ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLES AND
PRACTICE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION, AS ADOPTED IN THE MODEL AND
TRAINING SCHOOLS OF GREAT BRITAIN. One Volume, 434 pages,

Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00; in goat, $2.50.
III. GERMAN EXPERIENCE IN THE ORGANIZATION, INSTRUCTION, AND DISCI-

PLINE OF PUBLIC OR COMMON SCHOOLS; WITH TREATISES ON PEDA-
GOGY, DIDACTICS, AND METHODOLOGY, by Professor Raumer, Dr.
Diesterweg, Dr. Hentschel, Dr. Abbenrode, Dr. Dinter, and others,

One Volume, 482 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.50.
IV. EDUCATIONAL APHORISMS AND SUGGESTIONS ANCIENT AND MODERN WITH

AN INDEX. One Volume, 200 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $1.50. V. English PEDAGOGY; or Treatises and Thoughts on Education, the School,

and the Teacher. By Roger Ascham, Lord Bacon, Sir Henry Wotton, John Milton, Samuel Hartlib, Sir William Petty, John Locke, Thomas Fuller, William Shenstone, Thomas Gray, William Cowper, George

Crabbe, Herbert Spencer, and others. One Volume, 480 pages, $2.50. VI. PESTALOZZI AND PESTALOZZIANISM, with Sketches of the Educational

Views of other Swiss Educators. One Volume, 480 pages, Octavo,

bound in cloth, $2.50; (in goat, with Portrait, $3.00.) VII. GERMAN EDUCATIONAL REFORMERS-Sturm, Luther, Melancthon, Ratich,

Comenius, Basedow, Francke, Herder, and others. One Volume, 586

pages, Octavo, $3.00. VIII. FRENCH SCHOOLS AND PEDAGOGY; the Organization and Instruction of

Public Schools, both for General and Special Education; and the Pedagogical Views of Abbe de Lasalle, Fenelon, Montaigne, Rousseau, Cousin, Guizot, Wilm, Marcel, and others. One Volume, 576 pages,

Octavo, bound in cloth, $3.00. IX. SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION IN NORTHERN EUROPE, viz., Holland, Belgium,

Hanover, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia. One Volume, 416

pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00. X. SchoolS AND EDUCATION IN GREECE AND ITALY; both Ancient and

Modern, One Volume, 416 pages, Octavo, bound in cloth, $2.00. XI. SECONDARY EDUCATION; or Subjects and Methods of Instruction in Gym

nasia, Lycees, Grammar Schools, Academies, and High Schools for Boys, with Account, &c., of the Home and School Training of Girls, in dif.

ferent countries. One Volume, 540 pages, Octavo, $3.00. XII. SUPERIOR EDUCATION-AN HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVER

SITY, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSI

TIES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. One Volume, 520 pages, $3.00.
XIII. NORMAL SCHOOLS, AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS, AGENCIES AND MEANS FOR

THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHERS IN
DIFFERENT COUNTRIES, with a List of the best works on the History,
Biography, Principles and Methods of Education in the French, Ger.

man and English Languages. One Volume, 608 pages, $3.00.
TERMS.- Any one of the Volumes will be sold separately at the price affixed.
Orders will be received for the series, bound in cloth, as far as published, viz., I.,
II., III., IV., V., VI., VII., at $1.75 per volume, payable on delivery.

JUNE 1, 1863.

GERMAN EDUCATIONAL REFORMERS; Memoirs of Eminent Teachers and Educators in Germany, from the Fourteenth to the Nineteenth century, with contributions to the Iristory of Education from the Revival of Classical Learning. From the "Geschichte der Padagogikof Karl von Raumer. Republished from "The American Journal of Education," edited by HENRY BARNARD, LL. D. 586 pages. Price, $3.00.

CONTENTS

185

229

252

Paox. Preface,..... Meinoir of Karl von Raumer,.......... I. INTRODUCTION. Revival of Classical Literature in Italy,.........................

........... 17-24 1. The Middle Ages-Condition of Studies, 'Teuching and the Arts,................. 2. Dante, Boccaccio, Petrarch,...................

................... 28 3. Greek Scholars from Constantinople, John of Ravenna, Chrysoloras, .............. 35 4. Italian Teachers-Guarino, Philelphus, Poggius, Valla, Landinus, Politianus, Picus, 49

5. Transition to Germany,........ II. DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS AND NORTHERN GERMANY,. 65–

1. Gerard of Daventer-Rudewin-Gerard of Zutphen-The Hieronymians,.........
2. Wessel - Rudolph Agricola-Hegius-Lange-Busch,............
3. Erasmus,........................................................
4. School of Schlettstadt--Dringenberg-Wimpheling-Reuchlin,.................
APPENDIX. Condition of Schools and Tenchers in the Sixteenth Century,........

Autobiography of John Platter; A-B-C-shooters and Bacchants.............. 125 II. THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION,........................................ 131-266 1. Martin Luther,......

..... 131 2. Philip Melancthon...........

161 3. Valentine Friedland Trotzendorf,........... 4. John Sturm,...

..... 193 5. Michael Neander,............

... 193 6. Ignatius Loyola and the Schools of the Jesuits,.......... 7. The Early School Codes of Germany, .............

1. Dutchy of Wirtemberg; 2. Electorate of Saxony,.......................

8. The Universities of the Sixteenth Century,................ IV. REALISM,......................................

.............................. 267-334 1. Verbal Realism-Erasmus-Melancthon,....................................... 267 2. Real Realism-Influence of Lord Bacon's Philosophy,.......................... 273 3. Real Schools. Hecker, Halm, Semler; Modern Development of Realistic Instruction, 302 4. Michael Montaigne, ..........

............ 317 V. THE RENOVATORS, OR PROGRESSIVES,......

DORESSIVES,...................................... 335-520 1. New Idens and Methods of Education,......

..................... 335 2. Wolfgang Ratich,. 3. John Amos Comenius, 4. Schools and Education in Periods of Peace and War,........

1. The Thirty Years' War; 2. The Century after the Peace of Westphalia,.... 5. John Locke and Influence of his Pedagogy on German Education,................ 6. Augustus Hermann Franke, and the Pietists, ........... 7. Jean Jaques Rousseau and his Influence on the Philanthropinists,......... ...... 459 8. The Philanthropinum at Dessau,. John Bernhard Basedow,.......

........ 487 VI. THE REFORMATORY PHILOLOGISTS,....

.... 521-574 1. Johann Mathias Gesner, ........ 2. John August Ernesti,.. 3. Johann Georg Hamann,...................................................... 533 3. Johann Gotfried Herder,.....

4. Friedrich August Wolf,...... .......................................... VII. PESTALOZZI AND THE Common, OR PEOPLE's Schools,................... 575–386

257

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