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XV. MILITARY SYSTEM AND SCHOOLS IN AUSTRIA.

1. OUTLINE OF MILITARY SYSTEM. The Austrian Army is recruited by conscription, the period of service being for eight years, with two years in addition for the reserve; but such soldiers as wish it may generally obtain leave after six years' service. Those who serve eight years are understood to have a claim for employment on railways and in the custom-houses. Substitutes are allowed, but they are provided solely by the State, and the means used for supplying them is made an element towards securing good Non-Commissioned Officers for the Austrian Army, in the following manner.

The sum paid over by private individuals for avoiding service in the Army is £150 (1,500 florins,) and the Government, in providing a substitute, pays him the interest of this sum during his period of service, and the capital when it is completed. A good substitute is permitted to serve twice, and he may thus receive £300 (3,000 florins) when he quits the army. Generally speaking, the substitutes provided by the Government are good Non-Commissioned Officers, who by these means are induced to continue a length of time in the service.

The Officers are obtained during a state of peace, either from the Military Academies, or by direct entry as Cadets, after passing a slight examination, into the regiments of infantry and cavalry, in which capacity they perform the ordinary duties of soldiers, and no particular period of service is required in this grade. The entry as Cadets is by nomination, part by the Colonels, proprietors of Regiments; part consisting of those having claims on the Regiments; and part of those recommended from the ranks.

Those who join the Army from the Military Academies consist principally of the sons of military men, whose education is mainly provided for by the State, and of others who are placed there by means of funds provided by provinces, districts, municipalities, or private individuals.

Any Austrian subject has a claim for admittance, on payment of the annual sum prescribed by the regulations.

There is no fixed proportion existing between the Infantry and Cavalry officers supplied from the Military Academies, and those entering regiments directly as cadets, but it is understood that the former do not amount to more than one-twentieth or one-thirtieth of the latter.

The Artillery and Engineers are now entirely supplied with officers from the Military Academies.

There is no difference in the pay of officers of the same rank in the various arms in Austria.

Officers when not required are placed on half-pay, which is rather less than the half of their actual pay whilst serving. When an officer dies, his widow is not entitled to a pension, but the state provides for the education of the children; and to prevent distress, an officer is not permitted to marry unless he has a certain income, independent of his pay, for the maintenance of his wife.

The promotion in the Infantry and Cavalry is regimental, and usually by seniority; but there is no doubt that promotion by selection also takes place, though not in the regiment itself, the officer selected being promoted into another regiment. The promotion in the Artillery and Engineers is also by seniority, and by corps, and, until the Hungarian war, was exceedingly slow.

Although not actually sanctioned by the authorities, cases have occurred in the Austrian service where officers have purchased steps from others serving in different regiments to themselves in the following manner:-if any officer is about to retire from the service, the promotion in the regiment being by seniority, the officer whose turn it would be to obtain the promotion would frequently sell his right to a junior officer serving in another regiment, who would thus be promoted into the vacancy. We were informed that this system had formerly led to frequent duels between the officer obtaining the promotion, and those officers in the regiment whose prospects were directly injured, by the senior having sold his promotion, and thus stopped their advancement.

11. OUTLINE OF SYSTEM OF MILITARY EDUCATION. Military education in Austria has been entirely remodeled since the Hungarian war, and is now conducted in a very regular and systematic manner under the sole control and supervision of the Fourth Section of the Supreme War Department, entitled “Military Schools." The establishment consists besides of

2 Majors of Infantry.
1 Captain of Artillery.

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